National Action Plan: Canada

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Canada launched its second NAP in November 2017 for the period 2017-2022. This NAP is a follow up on the first  Canadian NAP that was drafted in 2006 and was not adopted until 2010 and covered the period up to 31 March  2016. The lead partners for the second Action Plan are Global Affairs Canada, the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Supporting partners are Public Safety Canada (PS), Status of Women Canada (SWC), Immigration, Refugees and Citisenship Canada (IRCC) and the Department of Justice. Each supporting partner has its own implementation plan to achieve the goals of the NAP and strengthens Women, Peace and Security. The NAP aims to support women’s full participation in peace and security efforts, to prevent, address and fight impunity for conflict-related sexual violence and to consolidate women’s and girls’ empowerment and advance gender equality, including in the world’s most dangerous and complex conflicts.

Canada does not have a recent history of internal armed conflict or face serious external armed threats. However, Canada is a contributor to UN Peacekeeping missions, UN-sanctioned NATO military missions. Although Canada is not a fragile or conflict-affected state, women in Canada face a variety of challenges, including gender-based violence. Indigenous women and girls in particular face intersecting discrimination and violence based on gender, race, socioeconomic status, and other identity factors, as well as underlying historic causes — in particular, the legacy of colonialism and the devastation caused by the residential school system.

The NAP implementation has national and international elements. Each supporting partner has its own objectives, actions and indicators. The NAP emphasises Canada’s commitment to its Feminist Foreign Policy, which requires engaging men and boys, alongside women and girls, as agents and beneficiaries of change in peace and gender equality. The NAP recognises the crucial role of civil society, especially local women’s organisations and movements that advance women’s rights. To amplify women’s voices around the world, Canada will also collaborate with Canadian civil society and women’s organisations at the grassroots level. Recognising the crucial role of civil society, Canada announced $150 million in funding for local women’s organisations that will facilitate programming in a range of sectors, including reconciliation and conflict prevention. Even though the NAP includes budget for actions aimed at achieving its objectives, the NAP fails to address disarmament as a tool for promoting the WPS Agenda.

Document PDF: 

Civil Society Monitoring Report

Canada analyisis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security: An Update

2015-2016 Progress Report – Canada’s National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security

Implementation Plans for Canada’s National Action Plan 2017-2022

Canada’s National Action Plan 2017-2022

WILPF

WILPF's Disarmament Programme has submitted the Brief to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development on Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security. 

Please see the full submittion here>>

Civil Society Actors

NAP Process

The development of Canada’s NAP was inclusive, participatory and included input from civil society organisations. In developing the 2017-2022 Action Plan, the Government of Canada has consulted with civil society, in particular, the Women, Peace and Security Network-Canada (WPSN-C).

NAP Implementation

The NAP addresses the role of civil society in its implementation. The Action Plan Advisory Group will advise the Peace and Stabilization Operations Program (PSOPs)—as coordinator of the Action Plan—as well as the PSOPs Advisory Board on the implementation of the Action Plan. The Group will comprise civil society experts and government officials and will be co-chaired by a PSOPs official and a representative of civil society through the Women, Peace and Security Network Canada (WPSN-C). The Group will be established within the first six months of the launch of this Action Plan. Together, the PSOPs Advisory Board and the Action Plan Advisory Group will ensure the Action Plan implementation is strategic, coordinated, and responsive to new challenges.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Civil society is one of the entities listed as responsible for the monitoring of the plan. One of the entities responsible for monitoring and evaluating the NAP is The Action Plan Advisory Group. The Group will meet regularly throughout the Action Plan’s life cycle to exchange experiences and best practices, discuss challenges and develop innovative solutions related to the implementation of the Action Plan. The Group will also engage with staff from Canadian embassies abroad and women’s groups’ leaders to learn from experiences from the field. The Group will improve progress monitoring by means of a continuous dialogue between civil society experts and government officials who are responsible for implementing the Action Plan. WPS Champions will attend meetings as defined in the Group’s terms of reference. The terms of reference will be developed jointly by the government and the WPSN-C. Monitoring will involve continuous consultation with local women’s organisations that are beneficiaries of Canadian programming and advocacy.

 

 

Government Actors

NAP Development

The lead partners in the Development of the Action Plan are Global Affairs Canada, the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).

NAP Implementation

The Minister of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Canada’s implementation of the international WPS Agenda and for ensuring that implementation across government is aligned with the government’s foreign policy priorities. Global Affairs Canada, through PSOPs, coordinates the whole-of-government Action Plan efforts.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

The NAP assigns multiple bodies to monitor the implementation of the plan including the PSOPs Advisory Board, a whole-of-government forum at the Director General level, brings together departments and agencies involved in Canada’s peace operations and coordinates government policy on the Action Plan and Canada’s role in implementing the WPS Agenda.

Objectives

The primary objectives of Canadian NAP include:

  1. Increase the meaningful participation of women, women’s organisations and networks in conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and post-conflict state-building.

  2. Prevent, respond to and end impunity for sexual and gender-based violence perpetrated in conflict and sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers and other international personnel, including humanitarian and development staff.

  3. Promote and protect women’s and girls’ human rights, gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in fragile, conflict and post-conflict settings.

  4. Meet the specific needs of women and girls in humanitarian settings, including the upholding of their sexual rights and access to sexual and reproductive health services.

  5. Strengthen the capacity of peace operations to advance the WPS Agenda, including by deploying more women and fully embedding the WPS Agenda into CAF operations and police deployments.

Action/Activities

Each area of work has examples of different actions assigned. For example, Strategic Objective 2 “Prevent, respond to and end impunity for sexual and gender-based violence perpetrated in conflict and sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers and other international personnel, including humanitarian and development staff ” includes the following actions:

  1. Strengthen gender and WPS training, including on gender-based violence, for government personnel.

Each supporting partner has its own objectives, actions, and indicators. For example, The Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces first objective, “Further integration of a Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) perspective within National Defence. Baseline: Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations.” Include the following actions:

  1. Integrate the WPS Agenda along with gender perspectives into Memoranda to Cabinet, Treasury Board and associated Cabinet submissions, policy documents, appropriation directions, procurement requirements, project proposals, strategies, Operational Plans, Operational Orders, exercises and related peace and security activities.

  2. Publish a Department of National Defence (DND) GBA + Directive to provide guidance to the L1s.

  3. Establish and hire a DND GBA + Director.

Timeframe
The implementation period for the National Plan of Action is five years (2017-2022).
Budget

The plan considers gender-responsive budgeting. For each action, the plan identifies financial resources for implementation. For instance, to address objective number 2, Canada launched It’s Time: Canada’s Strategy to Prevent and Address Gender-Based Violence, a whole-of-government approach to prevent and address this form of violence nationally. Budget 2017 included $100.9 million over five years, and $20.7 million per year ongoing, to implement It’s Time.

Indicators

There are specific indicators for each objective and action. For example, Strategic Objective 2 “Prevent, respond to and end impunity for sexual and gender-based violence perpetrated in conflict and sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers and other international personnel, including humanitarian and development staff. ” includes the following indicators:

  1. Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) Integration: GBA+ is an analytical tool to assess the potential impacts of policies, programs, services and other initiatives on diverse groups of people, taking into account gender and a range of other identity factors. DND/CAF is fully committed to using GBA+ in the development and execution of defence operations, policies and programs and used GBA+ in the development of Canada’s defence policy Strong, Secure, Engaged. Recognising that conflict, natural disasters and humanitarian crises affect people differently, the Defence team is integrating GBA+ into the planning and execution of operations as a means to both improve operational effectiveness and meet the needs of those disproportionately affected by conflict and crisis.

  2. Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Champion: The CDS and the Deputy Minister (DM) named the first DND/CAF GBA+ and WPS Champion. The Champion is a General Officer who will lead efforts to achieve organisational culture change on these issues. Specifically, the Champion will advocate for and support efforts to ensure that respect and equality are the basis of institutional success and GBA+ is integrated into DND/CAF operations and institutions so that it becomes a routine part of all activities, policies and programs across DND/CAF.

  3. Gender Advisors: The CAF have established a Director for Integration of Gender Perspectives who will provide guidance and advice on the continued implementation of GBA +. The CAF have also established military gender advisor positions in the Strategic Joint Staff, the Canadian Joint Operations Command, and the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command. These individuals will advise on gender in operational planning and doctrine, as well as on inclusion and gender equality when working with other nations. The first CAF gender advisor is currently undergoing pre-deployment training and will be deployed to Task Force Europe in August 2017, and will work with partner nations to seek additional opportunities to deploy gender advisors (GENADS). In addition, each CAF operation now has at least one member fulfilling the role of a part-time “gender focal point”. Gender focal points are trained to advise the operational Commander on gender mainstreaming in a theatre of operations.

Monitoring & Evaluation

The Minister of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Canada’s implementation of the international WPS Agenda and for ensuring that implementation across government is aligned with the government’s foreign policy priorities. Global Affairs Canada, through PSOPs, coordinates the whole-of-government Action Plan efforts.

Disarmament

The Canadian NAP does not offer any specific actions on disarmament. It mentions disarmament in passing in two contexts. The NAP states that at the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Canadian mission will support the implementation of the OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality and other OSCE decisions, notably in areas specific to Canada’s objectives for advancing WPS, such as disarmament, and the increased representation of women in managerial positions at the OSCE and in field missions. It also states that In Geneva, Global Affairs Canada will develop a systematic approach to its efforts to mainstream WPS throughout relevant Geneva-based institutions and processes covering security, human rights, humanitarian issues, migration, health, labour, and disarmament, as well as trade and development. Its priorities will include multilateral partnerships to advance WPS, and supporting women of all ages and women’s organisations from fragile and conflict-affected states to have their priorities heard.