National Action Plan: Finland

Flag of Finland

UPDATE: The Finnish Government has launched its third National Action Plan for a period of four years (2018-2021). It builds on Finland’s first NAP (for the period 2008-2011)  and its second NAP (for the period 2012-2016). The third NAP includes recommendations from the Global Study on 1325 (2015), particularly on conflict prevention. Similar to the previous versions of the NAP, ministries and institutions that work in crisis management such as Crisis Management Centre Finland, Finnish Defense Forces, civil society organisations (CSOs) and experts from research institutions are responsible for the development and implementation of the 2018-2021 NAP.  These same entities will form part of the follow-up group responsible for  monitoring the implementation of the NAP.  The updated Finnish NAP has four mainly externally-oriented objectives, including in Afghanistan, Kenya and Nepal, and serves to strengthen the meaningful participation of women in conflict prevention and peacebuilding, mainstream gender in security sector, and improve the protections of women and girls while strengthening conflict prevention.  

 

Even though Finland has no recent history of conflict, there are tensions around the Baltic Sea Region due to increased security threats caused by military exercises conducted by Russia. Finland has partnered up with the governments of Afghanistan, Kenya and Nepal to support their efforts in the implementation and follow-up of their WPS NAPs.  Domestically and regionally, Finland works on the WPS Agenda through  diplomacy, crisis management, development cooperation and humanitarian aid and other expert work and training with EU policy measures. 

 

The 2018-2021 NAP sheds light on the link between arms proliferation and women’s security and aims to incorporate a gender perspective into arms-control, disarmament and non-proliferation. However, the 2018-2021 NAP does not include earmarked funding, an allocated budget or an estimated budget.

Document PDF: 

Finland Revised NAP (2012 - 2016)

Finland analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

WILPF

 

Finland’s WILPF section is an active member of the 1325 Network and has been involved in the development, evaluation, revision and implementation of the first and revised NAP. The 1325 Network includes the following organisations: UN Women Finland, Finnish League for Human Rights, Amnesty International’s Finnish Section, KATU, Civil Society Conflict Prevention Network, The Family Federation, Feminist Association Union, NYTKIS, The Coalition on Finnish Women’s Associations, National Council of Women in Finland, UN Association of Finland, Crisis Management Initiative, YWCA, Young Women’s Christian Association, Women Journalists in Finland, and the Finnish Section of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.

Civil Society Actors

Finnish civil society along with civil society in crisis regions play an integral role in the development, implementation, follow-up and evaluation of the NAP. Just like the previous NAPs, civil society organisations along with specific ministries will be responsible for the implementation of the 2018-2021 NAP in accordance with the designated priorities and outcomes.

 

NAP Development

 

Just like the previous NAPs, the 1325 Network of civil society played an active role in the updating of the NAP by lobbying for their recommendations to be taken into consideration during the development of creation of the 2018-2021 NAP. 

 

NAP Implementation

Civil society is also responsible for the implementation of the 2018-2021 NAP, including through submitting proposals and initiatives aimed at ensuring that the WPS Agenda is integrated into international and regional policies, strategies and activities.

 

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Representatives of civil society organisations participate in the monitoring and evaluation work of the follow-up group. 

Government Actors

NAP Development:

The government actors involved in the development of the 2018-2021 NAP were the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Crisis Management Centre Finland, and the Finnish Defense Forces.

NAP Implementation: 

The Ministry of Foreign Relations, Ministry of National Defense, and the Ministry of Women and Gender Equity are responsible for the implementation of the 2018-2021 NAP.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

The overall monitoring and evaluation of the 2018-2021 NAP will be systematically monitored by the national follow-up group, which is led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Within the national follow-up group, there are members of different ministries, agencies, civil society organisations and the research community.

 

Objectives

The main goals of the 2018-2021 NAP are:

1. Women play a more meaningful role and there is more emphasis on mainstreaming the gender perspective in mediation, peace processes and transition processes. 

2. Women play a more meaningful role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding.

 3. Mainstreaming of the gender perspective is more integrated into the security sector and crisis management.

 4.  Women and girls receive better protection, their rights are better safeguarded and their needs are better met during crises.

5. Finland promotes the objectives 1-4 in the policies, strategies and work of international and regional organisations and by encouraging the development of National Action Plans.

Action/Activities

Finland’s 2018-2021 NAP has various activities assigned to achieve its objectives. For example, for the first objective “women play a more meaningful role and there is greater emphasis on mainstreaming of the gender perspective in mediation, peace and processes and transition processes” has the following external actions outlined:

  • Actively develop meditation as part of conflict prevention in conflict-affected countries and in international forums;
  • Provide political and economic support along with expertise for civil society actors in conflict and conflict-prone regions;
  • Create practices strengthening and facilitating the participation of women by identifying obstacles to their participation;
  • Ensure the collection of good practices in the field to be used in mediation.
Timeframe

The third NAP is to be implemented in a period of four years 2018-2021 (four years). 

Budget

Similar to the previous NAPs, the 2018-2021 NAP does not provide any allocated budget or an estimated budget. It does however mention that the central government must provide monetary support for civil society organisations’ 1325 work. There is no mention on the budget in reference to its general implementation. 

Indicators

The 2018-2021 NAP includes fewer indicators than the previous NAPs. For example, regarding Objective 1 on “women play a more meaningful role and there is greater emphasis on mainstreaming of the gender perspective in mediation, peace processes and transition processes” the following indicators have been proposed for Outcomes 1.1 and 1.2 along with the bodies responsible for its effectiveness:

 

 

  • Outcome 1.1 - Challenges/objectives to women’s meaningful participation and gender mainstreaming in mediation, peace processes and transition processes have been identified:
    • Finland strengthens the link between practical work in the field and research-based conflict analysis on women’s participation in mediation, peace processes and transition process. The responsible bodies are: the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finn Church Aid (FCA), The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission (FELM) and the Crisis Management Initiative (CMI);
    • Finland promotes high-level experience sharing, collection of lessons learned and mentoring. The responsible parties are: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, FCA, FELM and CMI;
    • Finland raises awareness at international regional forums of women’s participation in mediation, peace and transition processes in all levels. The bodies responsible are: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, FCA, FELM and CMI.
  • Outcome 1.2 -Recommendations have been implemented to increase women’s meaningful participation and gender mainstreaming in mediation, peace and transition processes
    • Finland promotes the inclusion of the gender perspective in mediation, peace and transition processes. The responsible bodies are: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, FCA, FELM and CMI;
    • Finland supports women’s participation before and during peace, dialogue and transition processes, formal or informal. Bodies responsible are: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, FCA, FELM and CMI;
    • Finland provides public authorities and other relevant actors with training on the inclusion of the gender perspective at various stages of peace processes. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for this indicator;
    • Lastly, women are increasingly present at the post-agreement implementation and monitoring phases in which Finland is involved. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs, FCA, FELM and CMI are also responsible. 
Monitoring & Evaluation
Similar to the previous NAPs, the national follow-up group will be responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of the 2018-2021 NAP. Detailed mid-term and final evaluation reports will be prepared by the follow-up group and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Unlike the previous NAPs, technical working groups will be created to address the different themes presented in the 2018-2021 NAP to ensure and facilitate cooperation, communication and reporting between the entities responsible for overall implementation. Based on these reports, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs will prepare an annual report to the Foreign Affairs Committee of Parliament with updates on the implementation of the NAP.
Disarmament

Unlike the previous NAPs, the third updated NAP creates a strong connection between women, disarmament and non-proliferation. Weapons are addressed as a risk to women’s security.  More specifically, in its second objective on “women play a more meaningful role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding”, outcome 2.3 includes information on disarmament. Outcome 2.3 states: 

 

  • The gender perspective has been incorporated into arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation at national and international levels.
    • Finland supports the implementation of Article 7 (4) of the Arms Trade Treaty, on preventing gender-based violence, by all State Parties. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs will be responsible for this outcome;
    • Finland includes the gender perspective in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation at national and international levels. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs will be responsible for this outcome;
    • Finland promotes and supports the meaningful participation of women and women’s organisations in policy discussions and negotiations on arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs will be responsible for this outcome.