Germany launched its second UNSCR1325 National Action Plan (NAP) for the period of 2017-2020, updating the provisions of the first NAP (2013-2016). The NAP came about through a national effort led by the Ministries of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group 1325, which consists fully of ministries and excludes civil society. The six thematic focal areas of prevention, participation, protection, reconstruction, preparation of operations, and criminal prosecution that are contained in the 2013-2016 Action Plan reflect the goals of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda comprehensively and appropriately in the view of the Federal Government. The ultimate goals of the recent NAP is to strengthen the Women, Peace and Security Agenda at the national, regional and international levels and prevent crisis and armed conflict. To realise these goals, the NAP encourages the systematic integration of a gender perspective in all phases of conflict (prevention, resolution, stabilisation, peacebuilding, reconstruction and rehabilitation).
Germany has been a part of the U.S.-led coalition against ISIS in Iraq/Daesh since 2015. Germany is also a key contributor to UN peacekeeping operations and NATO military missions, and provides international humanitarian relief, and development assistance. Internally, Germany is significantly affected by the inflow of refugees. Although gender mainstreaming programmes exist in the German Government, women in Germany do not have the same opportunities and pay as men. They also remain a minority in decision-making positions. Women refugees in Germany face numerous forms of gender-based violence. These incidents remain largely under-reported as female refugees are hesitant to report incidences of sexual assault because of their experiences with the German legal system, and if the perpetrators are family members or security guards working at the refugee centres.
The 2017 – 2020 NAP builds on this comprehensive approach, focusing on the thematic focal areas in a slightly altered form, and supplements them with the following focal areas: strengthening the Women, Peace and Security Agenda and promoting it at the national, regional and international levels. However, the NAP does not meet the criteria of effectiveness identified by the OSCE. For instance, it lacks specific budget allocation, nor does it include a monitoring mechanism and concrete indicators to assess the implementation of the resolution on the ground. References to civil society’s role in the process is also minimal in the NAP. Specifically, the NAP’s development stages do not include civil society representatives.