National Action Plan: Philippines

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[In 2017, the Phillipines launched the second NAP; however, it is not yet available in the PDF format. Read more about the NAP (2017-2022) here>>]

In 2009 the Philippines launched a National Action Plan for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and 1820 for the period 2010-2016. Government and Civil Society actors were involved in collaborative and consultative processes, through the NAP Preparatory Committee, which conducted extensive national and regional consultations at various stages of the NAP’s development.

Since the 1960s, the Philippines has experienced various forms of armed conflict and violence, including intra-state conflict, terrorism, ‘warlordism’, armed separatist movements. Separatist movements remained active until 2011 and underwent various periods of escalation violating negotiated peace agreements. Women have been instrumental in peace-building and reconciliation, facilitating community dialogues, delivering humanitarian aid and support, managing evacuation centers, supporting displaced persons and delivering peace education programs. Despite the unique impact of conflict on women, and their significant contribution to restoring peace, they have traditionally played a limited role in official peace processes.

From a recent academic analysis: The Philippines was the first country in Asia to adopt a NAP in 2010. Its NAP is unique for having such a long time-period spanning seven years from 2010 to 2016. Like other NAPs, it is quick to mention measures already taken to implement UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions prior to adopting a NAP. Most notably, in 2009 the Philippines enacted the Magna Carta of Women (MCW), which provides for increased participation of women in peace building processes and their protection from gender-based violence in situations of armed conflicts. The NAP also includes a relatively comprehensive historical background of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) situation in the country dating back to the 1960s (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014).

Document PDF: 

Philippines NAP

Philippines analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

Civil Society Monitoring Report

WILPF

WILPF-Philippines was not involved in the development of the NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

Civil Society's major involvement in the development and implementation of the Philippine's NAP has been through the formation of the Women Engaged in Action on 1325 (WE ACT 1325). This Civil Society' working group was created to aid the Government on NAP implementation and provide an oversight role. WE ACT 1325 is made up of a national network of women's organizations, headed by the Sulong Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law and the Center for Peace Education.

NAP Implementation

Civil Society has no formally designated ongoing role in the implementation, monitoring or evaluation of the National Action Plan. The National Steering Committee on Women, Peace and Security does not include any representatives from Civil Society. However, the Steering Committee has pledged to partner with Civil Society Organizations in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the NAP. To this end the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process has disbursed funds to selected peace and women's organizations including Indigenous women's groups to implement various provisions of the NAP. Joint National Steering Committee, NGO discussions on how to implement baseline data gathering and information dissemination have also been held.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

In 2011, in collaboration with the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders, WE ACT 1325 produced a Civil Society Monitoring Review. The review expressed concern about the poor coordination, lack of resources and transparency in Women Peace and Security related expenditure have contributed to the slow and uneven progress of the NAP's implementation. A summary of the recommendations made in the report can be found in the right-hand panel above.

Government Actors

NAP Development

Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP), the International Women’s Tribune Centre (IWTC), and SULONG CARHRHIL, a third party national network that monitors the compliance of the government and the National Democratic Front to their agreement to respect human rights and the international humanitarian law, set up in March, 2009, a Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) to facilitate a series of regional consultations among multiple stakeholders to identify strategies for the effective implementation of the UNSCRs 1325 and 1820, as well as identify what should be in the National Action Plan. The PrepCom was given support by the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process to initiate the process of formulating the National Action Plan.

NAP Implementation

Key actors for implementation are listed in the appendix. These agencies include: Congress, Department of Justice, Office of the Presidential Advisor of the Peace Process, Commission of Human Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, Regional Commission on Bangsamoro Women, National Commission on Muslim Filipinos, Philippine Commision on Women, Department of Budget and Management, Department of Interior and Local Government, Department of Social Welfare and Development, Department of Education, Department of Housing, Supreme Court, Lower Courts, and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Government agencies listed as key actors in the monitoring and evaluation process include: OPAPP, PCW, AFP, DND, DILG, PNP, CHR, DSWD, NCIP, NCMF, and DFA.

Objectives

The Filipino NAP has four "Purposes":

Protection and Prevention: To ensure the protection of women’s human rights and prevention of violation of these rights in armed conflict and post-conflict situations

Empowerment and Participation: To empower women and ensure their active and meaningful participation in areas of peacebuilding, peacekeeping, conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction

Promotion and Mainstreaming: To promote and mainstream gender perspective in all aspects of conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding

Capacity Development and Monitoring and Reporting: To institutionalize a system to monitor, evaluate and report on the implementation of the NAP in order to enhance accountability for successful implementation and the achievement of its goals

Action/Activities

For each Purpose, there is a set of "Action Points".

For example, for Purpose 2, Empowerment and Participation, the NAP lists three action points:

  • Conduct action research on the situation, role and impact of women in the security sector
  • Involve the women community members as stakeholders in programs that address the impact of armed conflict, ensuring the participation, influence and benefits of community women and especially IP and Moro women
  • Increase the number of women peace and women’s rights advocates in peace panels, peace keeping operations and in other peace bodies at local and national levels
Timeframe
The Philippine's NAP covers the period 2010-2016, and specific timeframes given for action points repeat this. The timeframes given are: "2010-2016" and "2010-2013" for different indicators.
Budget
The Philippine National Action Plan does not include an allocated or estimated budget. No indicators or actions are included that formulate fundraising strategies; detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities; or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP. However, a subsequent Executive Order allocated roughly $100,000 USD for the first year of implementation.
Indicators

A set of indicators are given for each action point. For example, under Purpose 3, the action point, "Mainstream NAP into national, regional and local development plans particularly in their GAD planning processes and allocate funds from the GAD budget as well as tap other resources for its implementation", includes three indicators:

  • Number of NGAs/RAs/LGUs mainstreaming the NAP in their plans, especially those working on and in conflict
  • Amount and quality of resources of NGAs/RAs/LGUs to support and implement the NAP
  • Amount and quality of ODAs/ CSOs support for the implementation of the NAP
Monitoring & Evaluation

The NAP does not articulate implementation, or monitoring and evaluation mechanisms or strategies; instead the development of such mechanisms are required in Purpose five “Capacity Development and Monitoring and Reporting”.

A National Steering Committee on Women Peace and Security was created in 2010, and is comprised of government representatives only, including the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, Chairperson of the Philippine Commission on Women and the Secretaries of the Departments of National Defense, Social Welfare and Development, Justice, Interior and Local Government, Foreign Affairs, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples and the Office on Muslim Affairs.

There are no review or reporting requirements stipulated within the NAP, this element also falls under Purpose five, and has an associated indicator "Number of monitoring and feedback reports on the implementation of the NAP". The NAP requires the “involvement of civil society organizations, particularly peace and women’s groups in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the NAP”, but there is no formal mechanism established to support a formal ongoing role for Civil Society.

Disarmament

The Philippine NAP is one of the few NAP's with language and actions relating to disarmament. The NAP commits to enacting and enforcing laws regulating possession of small arms by 2016 and delegates responsibility to Department of Foreign Affairs, the national police, FED, CHR, and PCW.

Success will be evaluated by: Ratification of the Arms Trade Treaty and local legislation is passed The number of legislation on small arms The number of loose arms confiscated, surrendered and/or destroyed The number of individuals apprehended, prosecuted, and punished for illegally possessing small arms By 2012, the NAP aims to enact and enforce strict qualifications for the issuance of license to carry arms and laws regulating possession of small arms. Success will be measured by the use of a system of arms registration that includes neuro exams, a seminar and orientation on human rights and women's rights for gun owners.

The NAP describes the context of small arms and light weapons in the Philippines as being fueled by warlords, aggravating the situation of violence, and facilitating "a vast spectrum of human rights violations, including killing and maiming, rape and other forms of sexual violence…and forced recruitment of children by armed groups or forces. Small arms are directly linked to women’s death, injuries, rape and forced displacement during conflict and post conflict situations. In the Philippines, women are intimidated, threatened, harmed and violated with the aid of small arms."