National Action Plan: Spain

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Spain has approved a new National Action Plan in July 2017 to renew its commitment to WPS Agenda and update the first plan published in 2007. The plan was approved by the Council of Ministers is the result of inter-ministerial dialogue and dialogue with civil society organisations that have taken part in preparing the document. The plan will remain in force for six years (2017-2023) and provides for the presentation of the corresponding reports to Parliament every two years as a monitoring and evaluation mechanism. Stay Tuned for a more in-depth analysis!

Spain's NAP was developed in 2007 to cover an unspecified period of time. The government and civil society played a role in drafting Spain's NAP, with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs leading the process.

Spain does not have a recent history of conflict but does participate in international and regional peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. As such, their NAP is focused on implementing UNSCR 1325 on a regional and international level.

From a recent academic analysis: Spain’s national action plan is relatively short. It is mostly foreign policy based, and addresses collaborations with the European Union, the OSCE and other international bodies. There are six key objectives outlined by the plan and partnerships are identified with internal and external bodies in order to help achieve these objectives. There are no specific leading agents, although involved parties are outlined and civil society participation is acknowledged if not discussed in depth. There is very little specificity in monitoring and evaluation (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014).

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Spain analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

The Second National Action Plan on the Implementation of UNSCR1325

Implementation Of The Spanish NAP: Behind The Scenes

Spain's Second UNSCR1325 NAP: Civil society organizations demand a real commitment from the Spanish Government for the effective fulfilment of Women, Peace and Security Agenda

WILPF

WILPF España officially became a country section in 2011, four years after the Spanish NAP was launched. 

Some of the founders of WILPF España were a part of the antinuclear feminist pacifist movement of the 1980s. Others were involved in the Women In Black anti-war movement during the 1990s. In the last decade they have been focussed on education and research, editing and writing journals and newspapers, giving lectures and organising workshops on women, peace and security.

In response to Spain's Second UNSCR1325 National Action Plan, a number of civil society organisations, including WILPF Spain, drafted a statement that addresses the space for civil society in the implementation of this NAP, as well as other challenges of implementation. Read CSO statement here>>

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

Certain NGOs have been involved in consults on NAP development and implementation and have been given consultative status with the Inter-Ministerial Group for monitoring and evaluation of SCR 1325 implementation.

NAP Implementation

One of the pillars of the Spanish NAP is to encourage civil society participation in the implementation of SCR 1325. There is no specific civil society organisations mentioned in the NAP, though.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

There is currently no independent civil society monitoring process for the implementation of the Spanish NAP.

Government Actors

NAP Development

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Defense, Work and Social Affairs, Interior, Justice, Education and Science, Public Health and Consumption, Spanish Agency of International Cooperation and Development, Women's Institute, Secretary of State of International Cooperation (SECI) were involved in the development of the Spanish NAP.

NAP Implementation

For the most part, there are no specific government agencies associated with actions listed in the NAP. Sometimes it refers to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or other agency, and sometimes it just mentions "The Government of Spain".

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

An Inter-Ministerial Committee made up of the organizations that took part in the development process will head up the monitoring and evaluation process along with civil society.

Objectives

The Spanish NAP outlines the following six objectives in its introduction:

  • Promote the participation of women in peacekeeping missions 1 and its decision-making bodies.
  • Promote the inclusion of the gender perspective into all peace- building activities.
  • Ensure the specific training of personnel involved in peace operations, on equality and on different aspects of resolution 1325, as well as promote knowledge and dissemination of the same.
  • Protect the human rights of women and girls in conflict and post- conflict zones (including camps of refugees and displaced persons) and to promote the empowerment and participation of women in the processes of negotiation and implementation of peace agreements.
  • Incorporating the principle of equality of treatment and opportunities between men and women in the planning and implementation of activities for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), as well as the specialized training in respect of all staff involved in these processes.
  • Encourage the participation of Spanish civil society in relation to resolution 1325.
Action/Activities

Each objective is broken down into different parts based on implementation level - national, international, regional, organizational. For example, under the first objective - "Promote the participation of women in peacekeeping missions and its decision-making bodies" - the Spanish NAP gives the following actions: Implementation at the national level

  • The Government of Spain will continue to promote the presence of women in the armed forces (SAF) and the State security bodies and forces in accordance with the principle of balanced presence established in the organic law 3/2007, of 22 March, for the effective equality of women and men. To do this you will ensure that in the selection and promotion processes, sex and gender, in no circumstances, may constitute a factor of discrimination. Policy measures and concrete actions aimed at ensuring the incorporation and retention of women in the armed forces on par with their male colleagues is also structured.
  • The Government of Spain will facilitate the incorporation of women to peace missions. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and cooperation, in coordination with other government agencies and civil society organizations expert in the matter, shall draw up and keep updated, a base of data from possible Spanish women candidates for positions in international organizations, including the positions of representatives or special envoys of the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  • Will enhance the work of the Observatory for women in the forces armed and the Observatory for women in the forces and bodies of State security, to continue analysing and promoting the integration and retention of women in the armed forces and the forces and bodies of State security, in order to avoid discrimination by reason of sex and/or gender, and promote the development of their respective careers.
  • The Government of Spain will continue to ensure for the gradual incorporation of women in the armed forces and the State security bodies, as well as participation in decision- making. Specific health care will be provided to women participating in peacekeeping missions, prior and subsequently their participation. Implementation in the framework of the Union European (European policy of security and Defence-ESDP)
  • The Government of Spain is committed to promoting the participation and retention of women in ESDP missions. The Government of Spain will play an active role in the European Union to promote the appointment of women as special representatives of the Secretary General/High Representative. Implementation in the framework of other international organizations (Organization North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Organization for security and cooperation in Europe-OSCE)
  • The Government of Spain is committed to promoting the participation and retention of women in the missions of NATO and the OSCE. The Government of Spain will promote, at the heart of both organizations, the balanced presence of men and women, especially at the senior levels of the respective secretariats. The Government of Spain will continue promoting and participating in the Committee of women in NATO armed forces. Application in the context of the United Nations
  • The Government of Spain will promote the participation of women in the of United Nations peace missions, stressing that these are also present in decision-making positions. In this sense, the selection process will be supported, is shall draw up lists of candidates for posts of responsibility and it will enhance the retention of women.
  • The Government of Spain will promote, as a member of the United Nations, a greater presence of women in senior positions of the political and security organization divisions .
Timeframe
There is no specified period for the NAP or timeframes for the actions presented.
Budget
There is no estimated or allocated budget presented in the Spanish NAP.
Indicators
There are no indicators given to measure the progress of objectives and actions mentioned in the NAP.
Monitoring & Evaluation

The monitoring and evaluation process will be led by an inter-ministerial group made up of representatives of the ministries of Foreign Affairs and cooperation (with the Spanish Agency of international cooperation for development as the main executing body in the field of development cooperation)Defence, Labour and Social Affairs (including the women's Institute), Interior, Justice, Education and Science, and Health and Consumption, and chaired by the unit for the promotion of the equality policy of the MAEC.

The functions of this group will include:

  • To follow up on the actions of the "Action Plan of the Government of Spain for the implementation of resolution 1325".
  • Ensure the coordination and coherence of objectives and activities in the different fields of action (national and international).
  • Disseminate the activities carried out by Spain in the field of peace-building in connection with the content of resolution 1325.
  • Mechanisms of coordination with civil society to exchange information on actions taken in relation to the Resolution 1325.
  • Submit an annual report with the results of such monitoring.
Disarmament
Disarmament is mentioned twice in Spain's NAP, in the context of supporting women's groups and leaders in the operations of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) (in Objective 5).