Uganda developed a NAP for the national implementation of UNSCR1325, 1820 and the Goma Declaration on Eradicating Sexual Violence and Ending Impunity in the Great Lakes Region (Goma Declaration) for the period 2008-2014. The NAP’s development was lead by the Ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development and forms part of a broader national strategic framework on the advancement of women; in particular the five year National Action Plan on Women (2007) which set out priorities in peace building, conflict resolution and the rights of women and girls to live freedom from violence.
Uganda has a long history of civil-war and continues to face ongoing internal conflict, armed insurgency and elections related violence. But its geographical position in the Great Lakes region also exposes Uganda to complex intra-state conflicts with boarding countries and non-state armed groups. Conflict in Uganda and in the Great Lakes region more broadly, has been characterized by gross human rights violations, including human trafficking, torture, abduction and systematic sexual violence, including sexual slavery, the incidence of which has disproportionately impacted women and children. Women and children also represent the vast majority of internally displaced persons and refugees.
From a recent academic analysis: The Ugandan NAP is actually not only directed at implementing UNSCR 1325 but also UNSCR 1820 and the Goma declaration. The sub-heading of their plan is “commitments to address sexual violence against women in armed conflict”, nevertheless, the plan does prioritize other issues apart from protection from GBV. The UNFPA financed NAP development but there was no indication of who would finance NAP implementation. The action plan includes an extensive situational analysis of the existing legal and policy framework governing WPS as well as offering a historical background of GBV in Uganda.
WILPF International does not have a country section in Uganda and therefore was not involved in the development process of Uganda’s NAP.
Theme: Civil Society Actors
There was some Civil Society involvement in the development of the indicators, but no specific groups or organisations were mentioned.
The NAP establishes strategic actions to increase the role of Civil Society organizations in the formulation and implementation of policy and strengthen technical expertise and capacity. Civil Society are also provided responsibility throughout for various activities such as data collection, reporting, education and service delivery.
There is also one women’s Civil Society Organization represented in the UN Joint Programming on Gender.
Unlike other NAPs, there is no provision for an ongoing formalized role for Civil Society in the implementation or monitoring of the NAP.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
Civil Society established the UNSCR 1325 Civil Society Taskforce in 2009 to monitor the implementation of the NAP. The establishment of the Taskforce was led by Center for Women in Governance and coordinated by the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders. Civil Society has produced comprehensive annual monitoring reports, the most recent of which concluded the following recommendations:
Recommendations for Women's Participation in Governance:
Recommendations for Prevention and Protection:
Recommendations for Promoting a Gendered Perspective:
Theme: Government Actors
Development was led by the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development with input from relevant ministries and local governments.
Government ministries involved in the implementation include: Education and Sports; Finance, Planning and Economic Development; Gender Labour and Social Development; Health; Internal Affairs; Justice and Constitutional Affairs; Local Government; The New Partnership for African Development; Ugandan Human Rights Commission, Uganda Law Reform Commission, Uganda Law Society, Uganda Management Institute, Uganda People's Defence Forces; Uganda Women's Parliamentary Association; Uganda Bureau of Statistics.
NAP Monitoring and Evaluation
The Ministry of Justice and Consitutional Affairs, Family Affairs, and Gender Labour Relations, are tasked with coming out with annual reports. The Law Reform Commission and Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development will come out with half-yearly reports.
The NAP includes five Strategic Objectives:
Strategic Objective 1: Improved legal and policy environment in relation to enacting laws and policy making on GBV
Strategic Objective 2: Improved performance of the different actors involved in combating GBV
Strategic Objective 3: Increase access to appropriate health services and psychosocial services to victims of SGBV and increased collaboration, linkages and joint initiatives among the various actors responding to SGBV health related issues
Strategic Objective 4: Increase Women’s Visibility, Representation and Participation in Leadership and Decision-Making in national, regional and international institutions and mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of conflict.
Strategic Objective 5: Build community and institutional capacity to ensure the prevention of GBV in society.
Theme: Action / Activities
Each Strategic Objective has a set of Strategic Actions attached. For example, for Strategic Objective 1, the following actions are given:
The Ugandan NAP does not specify the period for which the NAP will be implemented, nor does it give specific timeframes for the actions to which it commits.
The Ugandan NAP does not include a dedicated budget, or estimated implementation and monitoring costings.
The NAP accounts for budget concerns in Strategic Objective 6 ‘Increased financing to all sectors for implementation’, which lists two areas of strategic action:
No indicators or actions are included that formulate strategies for sourcing increased funding; detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities; or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP. General gender sensitivity in budgeting processes overall are cited, and the need to direct more resources and technical assistance to combating gender based violence.
The Monitoring and evaluation framework cites reviews of government planning and budgeting processes, progress reports, community and stakeholder consultation as well as National Budget and National Bureau of Statistics as data collection mechanisms able to monitor implementation spending and resource allocation.
Each Strategic Action in the Ugandan NAP offers a set of indicators. For example, under Strategic Objective 2, the sixth action - "Community participation in working with the judiciary and the police to combat GBV" - gives the following indicators:
Theme: Monitoring & Evaluation
A full Monitoring and Evaluation Framework is included in the NAP which detail the sources for data collection, actors responsible for reporting and the frequency of reporting. The NAP details a broad spectrum of actors responsible for implementing the NAP which includes Government Ministries, bodies and departments, local administration, indigenous and international Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations, the media, Faith Based Organizations, UN agencies and other bilateral organizations, Donor Agencies, Development Partners and the Private Sector.
The NAP does not specify the creation of a body responsible for overseeing implementation, formal review/comprehensive reporting processes, or detail how each stakeholder will be effectively coordinated, supported and held accountable in implementing the NAP. The NAP outlines anticipated risks and challenges to successful implementation which includes appropriate funding, political will, implementation capacity, coordination and institutional monitoring and evaluation, but does not go on to elaborate strategies to mitigate against such risks.
The introductory chapters of the NAP identify the domestic and regional proliferation and easy accessibility of arms, particularly Small and Light Weapons as contributing to Uganda’s experience of conflict, insecurity and violence against women.
The NAP also references Uganda’s arms control and disarmament commitments, namely; the Bamako Declaration on an African Common Position on Illicit Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking on Small Arms and Light Weapons (2000); the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2004).
The inclusion of disarmament language and actions are limited within the NAP's indicators, which includes one reference within Strategic Objective 5 to put “mechanisms in place to combat the problem of arms trafficking and illegal acquisition of arms”