National Action Plan: Ghana

Ghana's NAP was developed in 2010, but launched in 2012 for the period 2012-2014.  As of November 2016, no new NAP has been launched. The development of the NAP was led by the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs with broad-based participation from civil society.  The plan is unique in that it has a separate action plan for coordinating the implementation of the NAP.

Although Ghana has not experienced armed conflicts of grave humanitarian consequences, there have been a number of violent ethnic conflicts with adverse impacts on especially women and girls which make it absolutely appropriate for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in Ghana. This is coupled with the fact that Ghana is involved in the maintenance of international Peace and Security by contributing troops to different peace support and peacekeeping operations. The relevance of a Ghana National Action Plan is ultimately for the maintenance of both National and International Peace and Security in general, and is therefore guided by the experience of localised pockets of intra-state conflicts which are mainly characterized by chieftaincy and land disputes as well as its multilateral co-operation and active participation in several international peace keeping operations within the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU) as well as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

The Ghanaian NAP is dated October 2010 but was only officially launched in December 2012. Interestingly the implementation period was supposed to cover three years from 2012 through 2014 but clearly the plan could not be put into effect for 2012 given the amount of time it took to formally adopt it. 

Document PDF: 

Ghana analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

WILPF
WILPF International does not have a country section in Ghana and therefor was not involved in the development process of Ghana's NAP.
Civil Society Actors

NAP Development
The NAP acknowledges inputs received from the NGO's including Women's Groups and Faith-based organizations. The Women Peace and Security Network Africa (WIPSEN-Africa) and the Women Peacemakers Program of the West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WPP/WANEP) are specifically mentioned as CSO's that contributed in the process of Ghana's NAP development. 

A Consultative Forum was organized by the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs in 2009 to finalize the preparation of the NAP and to provide stakeholders the opportunity to participate in the process. Participants included civil society organizations. In addition, a Validation Workshop was organized by Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs in collaboration with key stakeholders, including civil society organizations, to discuss the indicators in the NAP. 

NAP Implementation
Civil society organizations (CSO) are listed as "Other Partners" on several Output Objectives throughout the NAP. The "Primary Stakeholder/Lead Agency" for each of the objectives however is the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs. 

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation
The NAP states that the services of a consultant will be contracted for the monitoring and evaluation of the coordination and implementation process of Ghana's NAP. 

Government Actors

NAP Development
The Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs was the lead government ministry in the development process of Ghana's NAP. 

NAP Implementation
The Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs is the listed as the Primary Stakeholder / Lead Agency for each Output Objective. Various partners including other government ministries, civil society organizations, academic institutions and media. 

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation
The NAP states that the services of a Consultant will be contracted for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the coordination and implementation process of Ghana's NAP. 

Objectives

The primary objectives of Ghana's NAP are based on the three pillars - Protection, Participation and Prevention. Protection Protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls in situations of conflict and in peace support operations.

Outcome Objective: Ensure the rights, interests and special needs of women and girls are integrated in policy formulation and implementation as to enhance the protection of women and girls.

Participation

Participation of women in conflict prevention, peace and security institutions and processes. Outcome Objective: Ensure the full representation and active participation of women in conflict prevention, resolution, peace negotiation, mediation, crisis and security management at all levels of Ghananian Society.

Prevention

Prevention of violence against women including sexual, gender-based and conflict related violence. Outcome Objective: Contribute to reduced conflict and the eradication of violence against women and girls in both private and public spheres.

Action/Activities

Example taken from NAP under Pillar One, Output Objective - "Institutional mechanisms in the security and justice sector strengthened to protect women and prosecute perpetrators of sexual and gender-based violence."

Strategies:
1. Strengthen multi-sectoral collaboration between security and justice agencies. 
2. Sensitization and training of law enforcement and judicial personnel . 
3. Advocacy for the creation of SGBV units within security and justice institutions. 

Specific Activities:

1. Organize joint SGBV seminars and trainings for security and justice personnel. 
2. Support the development of a joined up response strategy for SGBV for the security and justice sector.
3. Train personnel of security and justice sectors on women's rights and SGBV. 
4. Provide technical and logistical support to the Ghana Police Service, Narcotic Board, Ghana Prisons Service and Judiciary to enhance their competence in responding to SGBV. 

Timeframe
The Ghana NAP covers the time period of 2012 to 2014. No specific timeframe is set on the Action / Activities. For every output objective the timeframe states 2012-2014. There is no scheduled deadline for implementation, monitoring or evaluation.
Budget
Ghana's NAP mentions the importance of allocation and material resources towards the implementation of the National Action Plan however there is no specific allocated budget in Ghana's NAP.
Indicators

The indicators in Ghana's NAP are specified by specific activity. Indicators range from measurable and specific to non-measurable and vague. Example taken from Pillar Three: Prevention

Specific Activity: Simplify and translate women's rights and instruments into five main local languages.

Indicator: Level of awareness of SGBV and the extent of intolerance for SGBV. 

Specific Activity: Capacity building and training.

Indicator: Number and percentage of SGBV cases reported, investigated and prosecuted. 

Monitoring & Evaluation
The NAP states that the services of a Consultant will be contracted for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the coordination and implementation process. Included in the "Next Steps" is the establishment of an Inter-Ministerial Committee to assist in monitoring the implementation of the NAP.

Ghana's NAP is one of the few NAP's with language and actions relating to disarmament. An output objective with specific activities related to disarmament is listed under Pillar Three; Prevention. 

Output Objective:

1. Promote measures to prevent and/or control misuses of illicit small arms and light weapons. 

Strategies:

1. Advocacy for the domestication of international and continental instruments. 
2. Review of firearms and ammunition laws in light of international, regional and sub-regional instruments. 

Specific Activities:

1. Organize consultative meetings with women groups and female parliamentarians to generate inputs for the review of the firearms and ammunition laws. 
2. Organize a consultative meeting with the AG's Office to discuss and develop and roadmap for the review of firearms and ammunition laws from a gender perspectives. 
3. Organize a validation workshop with women's groups. 

Indicators:

1. Extent to which reviewed law reflect gender sensitivity. 
2. Existence of a gender-sensitive firearms and ammunition law approved by Parliament. 
3. Extent to which reviewed firearms and ammunition law incorporates pro-women/gender provisions from international, regional, and sub-regional instruments

Primary Stakeholder / Lead Agency:
Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs

Other Partners:
WAANSA; GNACSA;  Ministries of Interior and Defense; Parliament; AG Office, MLGRD, Local Government Service 

Timeframe:
2012-2014