Women in Latvia face challenges from insufficient enforcement of laws on violence and discrimination against women. Formerly occupied by the Soviet Union, Latvia has a significant Russian minority which is a cause for some tension in the country. Latvia is a member of NATO and has participated in several peacekeeping operations, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan. Latvia acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1992 and is ranked 18 out of 144 listed countries in the 2016 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Latvia has signed and ratified the Arms Trade Treaty. In 2015, $286 mln was spent by Latvia on its military. In October 2015 Latvia expressed its commitment to develop a national policy framework in order to address emerging challenges to achieving gender equality, and to strengthen the legal framework in order to eliminate violence against women and girls. Latvian women face challenges including underrepresentation in Parliament, in the workforce and earn less than men. Women activists in Latvia continue to advocate for more focused gender language in Latvia's laws and greater women's participation in decision-making.