National Action Plan: El Salvador

 

The Salvadoran government launched its first NAP in 2017 for a period of six years (2017-2022). The NAP was created to streamline existing strategies and actions for the coordinated implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda.  The development of the NAP was led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women, and  Implementation Committee and its Technical Monitoring Committee. These entities were tasked with convening with UN Women, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Spanish Agency for International Development and Cooperation, the Central American Integration System and lastly the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy. The NAP was also developed in consultation with the Government of Chile and aims at strengthening women’s participation in all decision-making levels of peace processes, creating a culture of zero-tolerance for violence against women, offering protections and basic services to women and girls, increasing reparations for women and girl victims of armed conflict and strengthening the monitoring of the implementation of UNSCR 1325.

 

El Salvador faced a civil war from 1980-1992,  where thousands of people were displaced and over 70,000 people were killed-- many of which were women and children. The country signed a peace agreement known as the Chapultepec Accord in 1992, which outlined a reconstruction plan based on democracy, security and liberty. This peace agreement predates UNSCR 1325, however, women were included in peacebuilding and in the peace negotiations.  One of the gaps identified in the peace process regarding women which is highlighted in the NAP relates to the lack of attention made for women and girls in terms of reparations and rehabilitation after the war.


By adopting its first NAP, the Salvadoran Government demonstrates its commitment to addressing key issues for women in terms of maintaining peace and security.  The NAP offers a cohesive framework for monitoring and evaluating its goals over the six years but fails to include any information on disarmament and financing. The NAP does not elaborate on plans, strategies or mechanisms to ensure activities are funded within ministerial budgets.

WILPF

WILPF International does not have a country section in El Salvador and therefore was not involved in the development process of El Salvador’s NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

The NAP highlights the involvement of the Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development through the UNSCR1325 Implementation Committee and its Technical Monitoring Committee. The Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development worked with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to create the NAP, specifically on women’s rights issues.

NAP Implementation

This NAP recognises the partnership of Government entities and civil society throughout the implementation of the NAP. The Salvadoran Institute for Women’s Development will work on implementing the components of the NAP pertaining to the protection of women and girls.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Representatives from civil society will form part of the monitoring and evaluation team through the Implementation Committee of Resolution 1325 and its Technical Monitoring Committee.

 

Government Actors

NAP Development

The NAP notes the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the development of the NAP.  The Government of Chile also played an integral role in funding and creating the NAP alongside the Salvadoran Government.  

NAP Implementation

The framework for implementation of the NAP comprises of several parts because of the different pillars.   Different bodies are in charge of the implementation of different objectives.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Government entities will form part of the monitoring and evaluation team through providing reports periodically and ultimately when the NAP ends. For instance, for the pillar pertaining to including women in security issues, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security will be responsible for reporting on their efforts to ensure the increased participation of veteran women in decision making mechanisms.

 

Objectives

By 2022, the commitments of El Salvador to Women, Peace and Security will be based on the following objectives:

  • Promote the participation of women in all decision making levels throughout peace processes and decision making on peace and security  both nationally and internationally;

  • Promote a culture of zero-tolerance regarding violence against women based on the creation of a mechanism of prevention, particularly to sexual violence;

  • Note that women and girls are the most vulnerable and suffer because they are women and in this light, offer necessary mechanisms of protection and promotion of human rights, basic services for women and girls, while improving the justice system;

  • Design and create implementation measures geared to safety and rehabilitation to respond timely to emergencies and support restitution and reparations for women and girl victims and survivors;

  • Create activities in coordination with institutions and organisations to strengthen the implementation of UNSCR 1325.

Action/Activities

Each objective has different goals, actions, indicators and departments assigned to achieve these. For example, Objective 1 on “increasing women’s participation in peace processes and decision making on peace and security nationally and internationally” includes the following:

 

A.E.1.1.1: Renew existing regulatory frameworks in order to increase the active presence of women in State institutions, especially in public and citizen security institutions.

  • Activity 1a:Instructions on how to regulate the equal participation of women and men of the National Civil Police in UN Peacekeeping Missions.

  • Activity 1b: Support the hiring of more women in management positions within the the Ministry of Justice and Public Security.

 

A.E.1.1.2: Guarantee the participation and equal representation of women in decision-making bodies on issues of public and citizen security.

  • Activity 1a: Guarantee that the Ministry of Justice and Public Security creates more job opportunities for women

  • Activity 1b: Promote the inclusion of veteran women in decision making

 

A.E.1.1.3: Guarantee the participation of women in United Nations peacekeeping operations in which El Salvador participates as a contributing country

  • Activity 1a: Systematize experiences of women participating in peace missions

 

A.E.1.2.1: Develop and implement positive action measures to increase the participation and representation of women in State institutions

  • Activity 1a: Communication campaign to encourage and motivate the participation of Salvadoran women in the National Civil Police

  • Activity 1b: Preparation of instructions to regulate the increase and participation of women in the National Civil Police

  • Activity 1c: Promote the participation of women veterans and survivors of the armed conflict in spaces of citizen comptrollership

  • Activity 1d: Incorporate UNSCR 1325 into the Institutional Gender Policy for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  • Activity 1e: Incorporate the implementation of UNSCR 1325 into the Strategic Development Plan of the Armed Forces.


 

[Etc.]

 

Timeframe

The implementation period for the National Action Plan of El Salvador is six years (2017-2022).

Budget

There is no total cost of the NAP implementation mentioned in this NAP. The creation of the NAP includes a reference to funding from the Chilean Embassy to El Salvador, UN Women and the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy.  The implementation of the NAP mentions various government sectors in terms of funding Women, Peace and Security.

There are no indicators or actions included that formulate strategies for sourcing increased funding, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP.

 

Indicators

To achieve each objective, the NAP has different indicators assigned. For example, Objective 1 on “increasing women’s participation in peace processes and decision making on peace and security nationally and internationally” includes the following indicators or desired result:

 

A.E.1.1.1: Renew existing regulatory frameworks in order to increase the active presence of women in State institutions, especially in public and citizen security institutions.

  • Activity 1a: Instructive document

  • Activity 1b: An increment of women in management positions

 

A.E.1.1.2:Guarantee the participation and equal representation of women in decision-making bodies on issues of public and citizen security.

  • Activity 1a: An increased percentage of positions for women

  • Activity 1b: Incorporation of women in the Veterans of War Program

A.E.1.1.3: Guarantee the participation of women in United Nations peacekeeping operations in which El Salvador participates as a contributing country

  • Activity 1a: Systematization document of the experience

 

A.E.1.2.1: Develop and implement positive action measures to increase the participation and representation of women in State institutions

  • Activity 1a:  One communication campaign

  • Activity 1b: Elaborate instructions

  • Activity 1c: Have a functioning participation mechanism

  • Activity 1d: Institutional policy incorporation of UNSCR 1325

  • Activity 1e: Compliance with the guidelines of UNSCR 1325 in the Armed Forces

 

Etc.

 

Monitoring & Evaluation

The Salvadoran NAP includes the entities responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of each activity.  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women  and the  Implementation Committee of Resolution 1325 and its Technical Monitoring Committee are in charge of the oversight of the NAP. These bodies are responsible for formulating, directing, executing and monitoring compliance with the National Policy on Women.

 

The processes in place for reporting and review are the following:

 

  • The activities of the National Implementation Committee, in particular the convening and holding of plenary meetings of the Committee (once a year), meetings of the Board of Directors (twice a year), meetings of the Technical Monitoring Committee (every 2 months) ) and Advisory Group meetings (every 2 months).

  • Prepare periodic reports that take into account the development and fulfillment of the NAP, in particular the publication of an annual report giving an account of the progress made in its implementation as well as the annual update of the expected indicators.

  • Monitor the progress of the Institutional commitments and transfer these updates to all the members of the Implementation Committee and, in particular, review and update the contents of the NAP in light of the evolution of national and international standards.

  • Publish, at the end of this National Action Plan (2017-2022), a report on the level of implementation, challenges and recommendations.

Disarmament

The NAP notes the different experiences women and girls face in armed conflict, but fails to  address disarmament issues, or connect the proliferation of weapons with women’s insecurity.