National Action Plan: Romania

Romania adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Defense with the goal to be implemented for the 2014-2024 period. 

Romania’s NAP contextualizes the WPS agenda by providing an overview of legislative landmarks pertaining to the advancement of women’s rights at the domestic level. The NAP focuses heavily on increasing the number of women within the military, stressing the importance of women’s participation in the defense sector. The NAP acknowledges that these steps are insufficient without gender equality, stating that women are still underrepresented in leadership positions. Nevertheless, the action plan does not include objectives to achieve gender equality at the societal level, and is quite limited in its interpretation of the WPS Agenda by focusing on the military alone. 

Romania transitioned into a democratic regime in 1989 with the overthrow of the country’s long-lasting communist government. Romania does not have a recent history of large-scale conflict. However, the country has had a tense relationship with its ethnic Hungarian population, which resulted in violent clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Târgu Mureș in 1990. 

In 2018, Romania was among the top 40 countries with the highest military expenditure. That same year, Romania’s military spending increased by 18%, with a total of $4.6 billion spent on military expenses. Romania has been a member of the UN since 1955 and is a contributor to UN Peacekeeping Operations, with a total of 178 personnel deployed as of September 2019.  A former member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program, Romania officially joined NATO in 2004. Romania has both signed and ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which regulates the flow of weapons across international borders.

Document PDF: 

Romania NAP (2014-2024) - Romanian

Analysis: Regarding the implementation, by Romania, of the United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 “Women, peace and security”

Romania NAP (2014-2024) - English

WILPF

WILPF International does not have a country section in Romania and therefore was not involved in the development process of Romania’s NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Development:

The NAP does not indicate civil society inclusion in the development of the NAP. 

NAP Implementation:

The NAP lists, “Initiating, maintaining and developing the cooperation between the organization Romanian civil society in order to harmonize the means of helping the female population with specific needs” as one of the objectives. For this, the NAP lists “non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children, Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, etc.” as cooperation partners in the implementation of this objective. However, the NAP does not indicate further inclusion of Romanian civil society in the implementation of the NAP.

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:

The NAP does not indicate civil society inclusion in the monitoring and evaluation of the NAP. 

Government Actors

NAP Development:

The NAP was developed by Romania’s Ministry of Defense. 

NAP Implementation:

A working group will oversee the implementation of the NAP. The working group will consist of representatives from the following government departments: Defense Policy and Planning; Human Resources Management; Personnel and Mobilization; Military Intelligence; Operations; Strategic Planning; Training and Doctrine; Information and Public Relations. The working group will also include experts from the 1st CIMIC Battalion (Batalionul 1 Cooperare Civil-Militară — the Civil-Military Cooperation Battalion of the Romanian Land Forces).

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:

The NAP indicates that a working group, which consists of the above stated government bodies as well as experts from the 1st CIMIC Battalion, will be responsible for the periodic updating of the action plan.

Objectives

The NAP states that the overarching objectives of the action plan is to: 

  1. Increase the number of women in military operations outside the national territory; 

  2. Increase the involvement of women in the decision-making process;

  3. Increase inter-ministerial cooperation with non-governmental organizations and civil society

The NAP also includes an implementation matrix with the following five objectives:

  1. Increase the number of women involved in the entire area of activities carried out at the Ministry of National Defense level;

  2. Promote the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 within the Ministry of National Defense;

  3. Promoting the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense in the Romanian media;

  4. Promote the importance of implementing UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense, in theaters of operations and in allied and/or host countries mass- media;

  5. Evaluating and reporting on the implementation of UNSCR Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of National Defense.

Action/Activities

The NAP has an implementation matrix that breaks down each objective with corresponding tasks, responsible officer/cooperation, indicators/assessment, and implementation period. For example, objective 1 identifies “Increase the participation and involvement of women in specific activities of the Ministry of National Defense, at all hierarchical levels and in all areas of expertise, including in the decision- making process and in the peacekeeping missions” as an activity (p. 5, implementation matrix). 

Timeframe

The implementation period of the NAP is ten years (2014-2024).

Budget

The NAP does not contain an allocated or estimated budget.

Indicators

The NAP identifies several performance indicators for each objective, outlined on the implementation matrix. For example, objective #1 identifies “Number and percentage of women” and “The number and percentage of women involved in decision-making and peacekeeping missions should increase compared to 2013” as performance indicators (p. 5, implementation matrix). 

Monitoring & Evaluation

The NAP indicates that a working group will be established to oversee the implementation and periodic updating of the action plan. No further monitoring and evaluation plan is included as part of the NAP.

Disarmament

The NAP does not mention disarmament or demilitarization.