Romania adopted its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2014. The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Defense with the goal to be implemented for the 2014-2024 period.
Romania’s NAP contextualizes the WPS agenda by providing an overview of legislative landmarks pertaining to the advancement of women’s rights at the domestic level. The NAP focuses heavily on increasing the number of women within the military, stressing the importance of women’s participation in the defense sector. The NAP acknowledges that these steps are insufficient without gender equality, stating that women are still underrepresented in leadership positions. Nevertheless, the action plan does not include objectives to achieve gender equality at the societal level, and is quite limited in its interpretation of the WPS Agenda by focusing on the military alone.
Romania transitioned into a democratic regime in 1989 with the overthrow of the country’s long-lasting communist government. Romania does not have a recent history of large-scale conflict. However, the country has had a tense relationship with its ethnic Hungarian population, which resulted in violent clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Târgu Mureș in 1990.
In 2018, Romania was among the top 40 countries with the highest military expenditure. That same year, Romania’s military spending increased by 18%, with a total of $4.6 billion spent on military expenses. Romania has been a member of the UN since 1955 and is a contributor to UN Peacekeeping Operations, with a total of 178 personnel deployed as of September 2019. A former member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program, Romania officially joined NATO in 2004. Romania has both signed and ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which regulates the flow of weapons across international borders.