National Action Plan: Estonia

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Estonia developed its first NAP in 2010 for the period 2010 – 2014. The NAP was led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which headed an interdepartmental Working Group.  A revised NAP was launched in 2015 for the period of 2015-2019 developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in co-operation with the Ministry of Education and Research, the Ministry of Defense and the Defense Forces, the Defense League, the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Police and Boarder Guard Board and civil society representatives. The revised NAP outlines external activities aimed at ensuring human rights of women through the promotion of gender equality as well as prevention and elimination of gender-based violence. Other strategic documents include internal activities at the national level. Estonia's second NAP outlines three main objectives in the implementation of UNSCR 1325. The first objective is to improve the situation of women in conflict areas as well as post-conflict areas, focusing on education and empowerment of women and by that establishing greater opportunities for the involvement of women in peace processes in their own community. The second objective is o raise awareness of the impact of conflicts on women as well as of women’s role in ensuring peace and security; and the participation of women in conflict resolution and decision-making processes. The final objective is to enhance co-operation and information exchange on national and international level.

Estonia does not have recent history of conflict. However, it joined NATO in 2004 and since has taken part in multiple wars. It has participated in the present War on Terror. It also participated in the Iraq War (2003-2011) and the War in Afghanistan (2001-2014).

The Estonian NAP development process appears to have been relatively inclusive, although it fails to specify which specific civil society organizations took part in the working group that developed the NAP. Yet, the NAP mentions an important yet often neglected observation that the process of NAP development can create positive externalities – in this case to develop closer contacts and increase awareness among parties related to the issue of Women, Peace and Security. Overall the Estonian NAP is among the most specific NAPs, across the featured criterion (Miller, Pournik, & Swaine, 2014).

At the 23 April 2019 high-level WPS Commitments event, Estonia committed to creating a new NAP in advance of October 2020.

Document PDF: 

Implementation Report

Estonia analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

Estonia Revised NAP 2015-2019

Implementation of UNSCR1325 in Estonia from 2015-2019: Overview Report 2015-2017

WILPF
WILPF International does not have a country section in Estonia and therefore was not involved in the development process of Estonia’s NAP.
Civil Society Actors

NAP Development

The NAP states that Civil Society was involved in the development of the NAP alongside Government bodies and also have an ongoing role in the implementation body, however, the individual organizations are not acknowledged.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Civil society organisations are involved with monitoring the implementation of the NAP alongside government agencies. The implementing institutions submit a written overview of all implementation activities twice during the period of the NAP (2015-2019). The overview creates the basis for the implementation reports, which are prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and submitted to the Government of the Republic for information.

Government Actors

NAP Development

Leading the development of Estonia's NAP was the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in co-operation with the Ministry of Education and Research, the Ministry of Defence and the Defence Forces, the Defence League, the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Police and Boarder Guard Board and civil society representatives.

NAP Implementation

The NAP is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Research (MER), the Ministry of Defence (MD), the Ministry of the Interior (MI), the Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), the Defence League (DL), and the Naiskodukaitse (Women`s Voluntary Defence Organization; NKK) in co-operation with civil society organisations, institutions of higher education and research institutions.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

The Estonian NAP will be implemented by the Ministry of Education and Research (MER), the Ministry of Defence (MD), the Ministry of the Interior (MI), the Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), the Defence League (DL), and the Naiskodukaitse (Women`s Voluntary Defence Organization; NKK) in cooperation with civil society organisations. The implementing actors present a written overview of all implementation activities twice during the period of the NAP (2015-2019). The overview creates the basis for the implementation reports, which are prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. All implementing reports are submitted to the Government of the Republic for information.

Objectives

The Estonian NAP outlines a set of objectives and principles for compiling the action plan

Objectives:

  • To improve the situation of women in conflict areas as well as post-conflict areas, focusing on education and empowerment of women and by that establishing greater opportunities for the involvement of women in peace processes in their own community.

  • To raise awareness of the impact of conflicts on women as well as of women’s role in ensuring peace and security; and the participation of women in conflict resolution and decision-making processes. Measures to increase awareness are taken both internally and abroad, both on diplomatic as well as grassroots level.

  • To enhance co-operation and information exchange on national and international level.

Principles:

  • To continue the activities initiated with the previous action plan as the relevant processes are of long-term nature

  • To focus on areas in which Estonia will be able to implement the objectives of resolution 1325 using the existing means

  • To phrase the activities in a more general manner so to enable competent authorities to carry out specific actions while taking into account requirements specific to their field, considering budget and other related documents.
Action/Activities

The Estonian NAP includes five subject-specific groups of planned measures corresponding with the objectives and priorities for implementing the NAP.

  • Supporting and ensuring human rights of women and empowerment of women in conflict areas and post-conflict areas

  • Cooperation, information exchange and raising awareness at the international level

  • Raising awareness at the national level

  • Participation of women in positions related to peace and security in Estonia

  • Enhancement of cooperation and information exchange in Estonia.

Each of the planned measures has a set of indicators and agency responsible for implementation.

Timeframe
There is no specified timeframe for activities, but the Estonian NAP is for the the period 2015-2019, with progress reports issued twice during the implementation period.
Budget

The revised Estonian National Action Plan does not include an allocated or estimated budget, and instead states that “planned measures will be carried out within the existing budgetary means”.

No indicators or actions are included that formulate strategies for fundraising, detail what level of funding is required for which specific activities, or what accountability mechanisms will ensure funding is raised and used in implementing the NAP.

Indicators

Estonia's NAP includes indicators for every planned measure in implementing the objectives of the NAP.

For example, the measure stating ‘Ensuring that gender perspective is considered and taken into account when planning and implementing development cooperation projects” has the following indicator “Carrying out development co-operation projects that have an impact on the situation of women and children; project descriptions”. The corresponding responsible actor is listed as the  Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with civil society organisations

Monitoring & Evaluation

The second Estonian National Action Plan is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Research (MER), the Ministry of Defence (MD), the Ministry of the Interior (MI), the Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), the Defence League (DL), and the Naiskodukaitse (Women's Voluntary Defence Organization; NKK) in cooperation with civil society organisations.

The implementing actors submit a written overview of all activities twice during the period of the NAP (2015-2019) which creates the basis for implementation reports. They are prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and are submitted to the Government of the Republic for information.

The revised NAP notes that “the competent institutions will continuously exchange information related to implementation of resolution 1325 and will engage in comprehensive co-operation to achieve the objectives of the action plan”. The NAP can be revised during the period, if considered necessary by the implementation actors. They take into account measures taken by the EU, NATO and the UN in implementing resolution 1325, Estonia’s foreign policy objectives, and other circumstances.

Disarmament
The National Action Plan does not address disarmament issues, or connect the proliferation of weapons with women's insecurity.