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National Action Plan: Iceland

Flag of Iceland

Iceland adopted its first National Action Plan in 2008, updated it in 2013 for the period 2013-2016 and recently created a third NAP for the period of five years (2018-2022).  The third NAP like the second revised NAP was led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with some input from civil society. The review of the second NAP by civil society contributed to the third NAP.  Iceland has no recent experience of conflict and does not face any external armed threat, but is a key contributor to UN peacekeeping missions, NATO missions and provider of international aid and humanitarian assistance. As such, the Icelandic NAPs have been interpreted in a largely international way, seeking to implement UNSCR 1325 and coordinate activities related to humanitarian, diplomatic, peacekeeping and development. 

Iceland has been a leader in the informal Friends of 1325 Working Group, which lobbies for the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security resolutions within the UN. Iceland has relatively high levels of gender equality and institutional protections for women’s rights. Although Iceland does not have legal protections to guarantee women’s political participation, women make up more than 40% of elected representatives. However, women’s representation decreases in traditionally masculine Ministries such as Foreign Affairs, and in leadership roles within the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit.

A key strength of the updated NAP is that it continues to recognize partnerships as a separate priority area based on the idea that partnerships have a multiplier effect. The third  Icelandic National Action Plan is more specific than its predecessor but it still mostly has the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as responsible for activities. This updated NAP is constructed in the same structure as the previous NAP by consisting of four main pillars, each proposing ideal outcomes, outputs and activities in order to achieve each goal. However, the NAP of 2018 joined together prevention, protection, relief and recovery into one objective instead of separate ones as seen in the previous NAP. Finally, the update NAP, like the two previous ones, continues to fail to include any reference to disarmament.

Document PDF: 
WILPF
WILPF International does not have a country section in Iceland and therefore was not involved in the development process of Iceland’s NAP.
Civil Society Actors

UPDATE 2018:

NAP Development

Civil society formed part of the development of the NAP  by providing recommendations from the previous NAP.

NAP Implementation

Civil society is not included as an implementing actor of the updated NAP.

 NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Civil society, along with the steering group 1325 will be responsible for the mid-term review of the NAP. The mid-term review will assess if the objectives and the time-limits of output and activities apply as well as if amendments to the NAP are needed.

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NAP Development

Iceland prepared its Plan of Action for the implementation of resolution 1325 by consulting with NGOs working on issues related to women, peace and security, academic institutions and its Nordic partners.

NAP Implementation

Grants have been allocated to Icelandic NGOs working in conflict-affected countries for development co-operation, humanitarian- and emergency assistance, projects whose main objective is the increased participation of women in peace processes and peace-building

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

UN Women is the main monitoring actor of Iceland's NAP.

Government Actors

UPDATE 2018:

NAP Development

The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

NAP Implementation

The lead and cooperating implementing agencies are government ministries and institutions.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The steering group 1325 is responsible for collecting information from responsible parties for activities outlined in the NAP. The progress reports will then be turned into a summary that will be published by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs at the end of every year of implementation. This summary will also be submitted to the parliament yearly.

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NAP Development

The NAP was developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

NAP Implementation

The NAP does not specify who will carry out the activities listed except for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Icelandic International Development Agency will be responsible for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the NAP. 

Objectives

UPDATE 2018:

Similar to the previous NAP, this NAP has four priority areas.

The four main pillars of the National Action Plan are presented in the following order:

1) Training and advocacy;

2) Participation;

3) Prevention, protection, relief and recovery;

4) Partnership and collaboration.

For each of these four objectives, Iceland's NAP outlines a set of additional "Outcomes" or specific objectives. For example, under Participation, they include:

  1. Increased participation of women and subsequent impact on peace and reconstruction, in Iceland and internationally;

  2. Support and training of women in conflict zones which is of use in peace processes and reconstruction at an international level.

 

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The revised Icelandic NAP established objectives that closely link to the four pillars of UNSCR 1325:

  • Training and Advocacy
  • Participation
  • Prevention,
  • Protection,
  • Relief and Recovery Partnership and Collaboration

For each of these four objectives, Iceland's NAP outlines a set of additional "Outcomes" or specific objectives. For example, under Participation, they include:

  • The ICRU will recruit gender equality experts for international operations
  • Recruit just as many women as men to work as experts for the ICRU in the field
  • Appoint and recruit more women in senior positions both in Iceland and internationally
  • Women from conflict-affected areas participate in meetings on peace-building and security affairs that are organised or attended by Icelandic officials
  • Increased participation of women form conflict affected societies in peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction
Action/Activities

UPDATE 2018:

Within each "Outcome" the Icelandic NAP gives a set of activities to achieve that particular objective. For example, for Participation, under the first outcome -“Increased participation of women and subsequent impact on peace and reconstruction, in Iceland and internationally”, the following activities are listed:

  • The Iceland Crisis Response Unit shall fill specialist positions in gender equality related matters within NATO;

  • Seconded specialists for humanitarian assistance shall fill specialist positions relating to gender equality within international organisations working in the field of humanitarian assistance;

  • The male to female ratio of seconded specialists of the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit shall be balanced;

  • The male to female ratio on the list of key parties who work in policy areas related to women, peace and security in the Icelandic administration (see activity 1.1.1.) along with the male to female ratio on the senior positions on the list shall be mentioned in the yearly report of the National Action Plan.

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Within each "Outcome" the Icelandic NAP gives a set of activities to achieve that particular objective. For example, for Training and Advocacy, under the first outcome - "Plans of Action and/or Country Strategy Papers are aligned with UNSCR 1325" the following activities are given:

  • Plan of Action for Afghanistan will address specifically how it will promote the implementation of UNSCR 1325
  • Plan of Action for Palestine will address specifically how it will promote the implementation of UNSCR 1325
  • When drafting Country Strategy Papers for Uganda and Mozambique it will be examined if/how the implementation of UNSCR 1325 can be promoted
Timeframe

UPDATE 2018:

The fourth NAP is to be implemented in a period of five years 2018-2022.

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The revised NAP covers the period 2013-2016, but does not include any specific timeframes for the activities or outcomes listed.

Budget

UPDATE 2018:

The funding of the implementation of the NAP falls primarily on the Defence Directorate and the Directorate for International Development Cooperation of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

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The NAP does not include an allocated or specified budget, however they estimate the total cost of implementation to be around 95 million Icelandic krona, or 16 million Icelandic krona annually.

Indicators

For each "Outcome" there is also a set of indicators. For example, under Prevention, Protection, Relief and Recovery's first outcome - "Women and girls in conflict-affected situations are protected against violence and will receive relief and recovery", they give the following indicators:

  • A course for Icelandic NGOs held twice during the period of validity of the NAP. Estimated cost: 500 thousand Icelandic krona per course.
  • Percentage of grants/funding provided to Icelandic NGOs' projects that promote and strengthen protection against sexual violence in conflict situations and/or relate to the rehabilitation of victims
  • Contributions to projects implemented by local NGOs and/or international organisations that focus on the protection of women and support to victims of violence.
  • Contributions will amount to a minimum of 10 million Icelandic krona per year, including contribution under item 3.2
Monitoring & Evaluation

UPDATE 2018:

Within each "Outcome" the Icelandic NAP gives a set of indicators to achieve that particular objective. For example, for Participation, under the first outcome -“Increased participation of women and subsequent impact on peace and reconstruction, in Iceland and internationally”, the following indicators are listed:

  • The number of seconded specialists in gender equality to NATO;

  • The number of seconded specialists in matters related to gender equality;

  • The male to female ratio of seconded specialists with the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit on the one hand and within the field of humanitarian assistance on the other;

  • The male to female ratio of seconded specialists with the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit on the one hand and within the field of humanitarian assistance on the other. Information about the male to female ratio on the list of key parties, along with the list of senior positions on the list.

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Representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA)monitors the implementation of the NAP and reports annually to parliament summarizing its progress on UNSCR 1325. Any experts assisting the MFA will report back annually. At the end of 2014, Iceland will carry out an assessment of the NAP and determine if there should be any changes to the objectives, activities, or indicators.

Disarmament
Iceland does not mention disarmament in its revised NAP.