National Action Plan: Philippines

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Philippines launched its second UNSCR1325 National Action plan (NAP) for the period 2017-2022. Procedurally, the drafting involved an updating seminar and a series of meetings of the NSC WPS Technical Working Group (TWG) on the continuous refinement of the draft, consultation with representatives of civil society organisations, and deliberation and further inputs from the members of the Executive Committee of the NSC WPS. The National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (NAPWPS), 2017-2022 essentially takes off from the findings of the study on the implementation of the 2010-2016 NAP WPS, specifically, building on its gains and addressing the gaps. It adopts a broader framing of addressing the situation of women in armed conflict and recognising their contributions to peacebuilding. The NAP also incorporates some key recommendations made in the 2015 Global Study on UNSCR 1325 such as the prioritisation of conflict prevention, framing women peace and security from a human rights perspective, participation and leadership of women in all levels of the peace project, transitional justice, inclusive and participatory localisation efforts, combating extremism by supporting women peacebuilders, multi-level and multi-stakeholder approach to implementation, and financing initiatives aimed at materialising women, peace and security. Finally, the third generation NAP WPS is the explicit articulation of the incorporation of the gender perspective in the Six-Point Peace and Development Agenda.

Women have always enjoyed greater equality in Philippine society than it was common in other parts of Southeast Asia. However, the Philippines' history of intermittent armed conflicts with various insurgent groups has had a harsh impact on not only the women themselves, but also the roles they are conventionally expected to play in society. According to the Philippine Commission on Women, one in five women have experienced physical violence since age 15; six in 100 reported having experienced sexual violence; four percent experienced physical violence during pregnancy. Violence against women also takes many forms including enslavement in conflict areas, killing of human rights activists, discrimination in the workplace, emotional abuse, sexual slavery, and trafficking.

 The NAP WPS 2017-2022 anchors it vision to achieving the expansion of women’s role in the various spaces for peace. In this regard, it highlights women’s agency --- both as leaders and participants --- in the peace process of the country. It seeks to continue the best practice of women’s presence in formal peace tables as well as in other informal spaces (i.e. civil society and grassroots participation). However, there is no allocated budget in the NAP, which can potentially challenge NAP’s implementation, as well as monitoring and evaluation.

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Philippines NAP

Philippines analysis: Miller, Pournik, Swaine

Civil Society Monitoring Report

2017-2022 National Action Plan: Philippines

WILPF

WILPF-Philippines was not involved in the development of the NAP.

Civil Society Actors

NAP Process

The NAP notes that civil society was participating in the consultations through a consultative and collaborative process.

NAP Implementation

Duty-bearers, the main implementers of the NAP WPS, are not explicitly mentioned in the NAP. However, civil society are considered to be outside of this scope.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation of the NAP is a stand-alone Pillar. It includes civil society, with an opportunity to provide a report through a “civil society forum”.

Government Actors

NAP Development

The NAP WPS 2017-2022 essentially takes off from the findings of the study on the implementation of the 2010-2016 NAP WPS, specifically, building on its gains and addressing the gaps. Procedurally, the drafting involved an updating seminar and a series of meetings of the NSC WPS Technical Working Group (TWG) on the continuous refinement of the draft, consultation with representatives of civil society organisations, and deliberation and further inputs from the members of the Executive Committee of the NSC WPS. However, the main strategy employed was a consultative and collaborative process between various stakeholders, particularly, duty-bearers who are the main implementers of the NAP WPS.

NAP Implementation

Duty-bearers, the main implementers of the NAP WPS, are not explicitly mentioned in the NAP. Steering Committee on WPS includes Department of National Defense (DND), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), National Commission for Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) and other government entities.

NAP Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation of the NAP is a stand-alone Pillar. It includes state entities, as well as civil society.

Objectives

The four support pillars of the Philippines' NAP include:

  • Empowerment and Participation;

  • Protection and Prevention;

  • Promotion and Mainstreaming;

  • Monitoring and Evaluation.

Action/Activities

Each area of work has different actions assigned. For example, Support Pillar 1 (Empowerment and Participation) includes the following action points:

  • Sex-and-conflict disaggregation of data practiced by relevant agencies;

  • Existing M&E mechanisms harmonised;

  • Creation of a NAP WPS data-base;

  • Inter-link Country Reports on CEDAW, BPFA, WPS, SDG 16 specific to women in conflict-situations and peacebuilding, peacekeeping, and peacemaking as well as conflict prevention, resolutions, and transformation;

  • Institutionalisation of regular reporting (i.e. issuance of semi-annual progress reports) internally to the NSC WPS and externally to other publics (i.e. House and Senate Committees on Peace, civil society forum);

  • Report on Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) support for NAP WPS initiatives.

Timeframe
The implementation period for the National Plan of Action is six years (2017-2022).
Budget
There is no allocated budget in the NAP.
Indicators

Each action point includes a number of indicators that ranges depending on the action points. For example, Action Point 10 (Preventive mechanisms and early warning systems in place for women and girls to avert conflict-related violence) includes the following indicators:

  • Initiatives on gender, peace, security, and human rights aimed at building an enabling environment for peace through formal, nonformal,indigenous/cultural education supported;

  • Capacities of women on community-based early warning protocols and monitoring at the grassroots level developed;

  • Initiatives to address the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, including in the context of peace agreements (i.e. normalisation; end of hostilities, disposition of firearms, disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration) are strengthened.

Monitoring & Evaluation

As a stand-alone priority, the “Monitoring and Evaluation” Pillar prioritises the institutionalisation of a comprehensive and systematic M & E mechanism for NAP WPS, including through the following indicators:

  • Sex-and-conflict disaggregation of data practiced by relevant agencies;

  • Existing M&E mechanisms harmonised;

  • Creation of a NAP WPS data base;

  • Inter-link Country Reports on CEDAW, BPFA, WPS, SDG 16 specific to women in conflict-situations and peacebuilding, peacekeeping, and peacemaking as well as conflict prevention, resolutions, and transformation;

  • Institutionalisation of regular reporting (i.e. issuance of semi-annual progress reports) internally to the NSC WPS and externally to other publics (i.e. House and Senate Committees on Peace, civil society forum);

  • Report on Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) support for NAP WPS initiatives.

Disarmament

Action Point 10 (Preventive mechanisms and early warning systems in place for women and girls to avert conflict-related violence) specifically identifies action aimed at disarmament, as one of its indicators requires that

  • Initiatives to address the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, including in the context of peace agreements (i.e. normalisation; end of hostilities, disposition of firearms, disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration) are strengthened.