National Action Plan: S. Korea

Flag of Republic of KoreaThe Republic of Korea (ROK or South Korea) released its second generation National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 implementation in September 2018. The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea called in February 2012 for a more systematic and strategic implementation of UNSCR 1325. Based on consensus for the establishment of the National Action Plan, the Government began the process of drafting it in 2012 which was completed in 2014. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has led the government-wide effort to draft the National Action Plan in close cooperation with civil society through a public-private consultative body, made up of representatives from government agencies, civil society, and academia.

The Korean peninsula remains divided, under an armistice agreement resulting from the Korean War. At the same time, the ROK is an active contributor to development cooperation and peacekeeping operations. During WWII, the ROK suffered from grave violations of women’s rights, namely, forced military sexual slavery (typically referred to in this specific context as “comfort women”) by the Japanese Imperial Army. Upon the establishment of the National Action Plan, the ROK Government reaffirms its commitment to raising the awareness of the international community on issues of sexual violence during armed conflict, and to further contributing to the prevention of such violence and protection of the victims.

From a recent '1325 Network' statement: “We hope that the 1325 NAP will be a key tool for promoting women's equal participation in conflict resolution and peacebuilding, for protecting women's human rights, and for strengthening gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, it is very unfortunate that the South Korean Government accepted only a small part of the various recommendations submitted by women's organizations during the NAP development process. It is most regrettable that the issues of establishing a civil society- governmental consultation body for 1325 NAP implementation, and the reality of the United States Forces in Korea and support for people who have been victimized as a result of their presence were not included in the NAP” (1325 Network Statement, 2014).

Document PDF: 

Republic of Korea NAP

1325 Network Report on Korean NAP (English)

2nd National Action Plan - Republic of Korea - September 2018

WILPF
WILPF was not involved in the South Korea NAP development process.
Civil Society Actors

NAP Development:
According to the NAP, the government of South Korea identified opportunities for improvement in expanding the scope of areas on women, peace and security and strengthening participation from civil society in this area and in implementation. Accordingly, there has been an attempt to include diverse views into the second NAP from relevant  government ministries, civil society and academia in the drafting of the second NAP. 

NAP Implementation:
The NAP does not identify Korean civil society in the overall design of the NAP. The plan indicates that “in   the   course of implementing the  NAP, the Government will step up   direct engagement  with civil  society and promote public-private  governance. Furthermore, the  Government remains  committed  to  refining  the  overall objectives,  strategies  and action items of the NAP in consultation with civil society three years after its launch”.  According to the NAP, civil society is part of a promotion of “public-private governance” in the areas of defense, security, peace and unification.

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:
Civil society’s role in monitoring and evaluation is not mentioned in the NAP except for an allusion to “civil experts”. The NAP states “to ensure effective implementation and monitoring of  the NAP, inter-agency meetings will be held twice a year  in  which  all  relevant  ministries and agencies participate with civil experts present”.

Government Actors

NAP Development:
According to the NAP, the  Ministry  of  Gender  Equality  and  Family  (MOGEF), as the  main  implementation agency for the first  NAP,  “led a  government-wide  effort  to  draft the  second NAP in close  cooperation  with  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs (MOFA), Ministry  of  Justice (MOJ),  Ministry  of  National  Defense (MND),  Ministry  of  Unification(MOU), Ministry of the Interior and Safety(MOIS), Ministry of Education (MOE), the Korean National  Police  Agency (KNPA)and  the  Korea  International  Cooperation  Agency (KOICA)”

NAP Implementation:
There is an added area for Implementation and Monitoring from the previous NAP. The main implementation agency, the  Ministry  of  Gender  Equality  and  Family  (MOGEF), is working in close  cooperation  with  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs (MOFA), Ministry  of  Justice (MOJ),  Ministry  of  National  Defense (MND),  Ministry  of  Unification (MOU), Ministry of the Interior and Safety(MOIS), Ministry of Education (MOE),the Korean National  Police  Agency (KNPA) and  the  Korea  International  Cooperation  Agency (KOICA).

NAP Monitoring & Evaluation:
The NAP defines twelve objectives with strategies followed by concrete actions taken by the relevant government ministries and agencies. To ensure effective implementation and  monitoring  of  the NAP, inter-agency  meetings will  be held  twice  a  year  in  which  all  relevant  ministries and agencies participate with civil experts present.

Objectives

The NAP identifies twelve objectives compiled under the four pillars of SCR 1325:

Prevention

  1. Raise  awareness  of women, peace  and security and enhance capacity for  personnel working in the areas of conflict prevention and peacebuilding

  2. Expand the scope of a gender responsive approach in the areas of national defense, security, peace, unification and disaster/crisisprevention

  3. Scale up activities for women, peace and security through international cooperation

  4. Raise public awareness of women, peace and security

Participation

  1. Ensure broader participation by women in the areas of national defense, security, peace and unification

  2. Promote public-private governance in the areas of national defense, security, peace and unification

Protection

  1. Provide support for victims of sexual violence in conflict

  2. Extend support for sexual violence victims in the military

  3. Deliver support for DPRK women defectors and refugees

Relief & Recovery

  1. Lay the foundation for development cooperation from the perspective of women, peace and security

  2. Reinforce women's participation and protective support in development cooperation in conflict areas

  3. Solidify the foundation for implementation

Action/Activities

The actions to be implemented under the NAP are clearly stated and straightforward in how they are connected to the larger goal. For example, under the Prevention Goal 3, the NAP states: Scale up activities for women, peace and security through international cooperation. 

Strategy 1: Build a prevention system at the international organization level Implementing Ministry/Agency Action

  1. Actively engage in meetings on women’s rights, make supportive remarks on women, peace and security issues and cooperate with related UN Human Rights MechanismMOFA 

  2. As a member of the UN Human Rights Council (2016-2018), support resolutions related to women, peace and security and cooperate with the Special Procedures of the HRC with regard to the implementation of their mandates related to gender equality and the prevention ofsexual violence 

  3. Make remarks on women, peace and security issues and carry out cooperative activities in international conferences related to trafficking in persons, including the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) MOJ

  4. Implementactively the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children,supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

  5. Support activities on women, peace and security led by domestic and international NGOsin international conference

Timeframe
The ROK NAP will be in effect three years from its initial date (2018-2021).
Budget
There is no budget included in the NAP.
Indicators
Republic of Korea does not offer any indicators to measure the progress of objectives and actions presented in their NAP.
Monitoring & Evaluation

To ensure effective  implementation and monitoring  of the NAP, inter-agency meetings will  be held twice a year in which all relevant  ministries and agencies participate with civil experts present. In   the course of implementing the NAP, the Government will step up   direct engagement with civil society and promote public-private governance. Furthermore, the  Government remains committed to refining the overall objectives, strategies and action items of the NAP in consultation with civil society three years after its launch.

Disarmament
There is no mention of disarmament, weapons, or arms flows in the NAP.