Country / Region profile of: Oman

Although Oman does not have a recent history of conflict, Oman's patriarchal culture, in combination with conservative religious norms continues to have a profound impact on women. Despite progress, women face discrimination in almost all areas of life. Women remain underrepresented in the judiciary and government structures, and do not have full freedom to make decisions about their health and reproductive rights. Oman has neither signed nor ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Oman did not participate in the 2017 open debate on Women Peace and Security. In 2017, Oman spent $8.6 bln on its military; the state has not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of UNSCR 1325. Oman is ranked 133 out of 144 countries listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2016, but was not ranked in 2017. Oman ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 2006. While this is seen as a positive development in the field of women's rights, implementation of the Convention has been slow. Women in Oman are not afforded equal rights under the personal status law, which governs inheritance, marriage, divorce, and child custody. There is little to no data regarding women's rights organizations and activists in Oman. 

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 8,687,000,000
Military expenditure
Oman spends USD$8,687,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Empowering gender-sensitive UN Peacekeepers
This amount could comfortably cover more than half of the UN's entire peacekeeping budget for a year, allowing for deployment of more gender-sensitive peacekeepers
NAP 1325
Oman does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Morocco

Moroccan women have struggled in recent years to get the Government to enforce laws promoting women's rights. Morocco is the occupying power of Western Sahara and occasionally faces resistance from the Sahrawi independence movement, which employs many women in its military while many more participate in protests. The Moroccan Government has been concerned with weapons flowing through Algeria into Western Sahara creating renewed violence that often marginalises women and results in torture, killing, and forced disappearances. Morocco ranked 136 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Morocco ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 21 June 1993. Morocco voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, but has not yet signed or ratified it.  During the 2017 October Security Council Open Debate, Morocco gave a statement affirming support for WPS but made no specific commitments towards the implementation of UNSCR 1325. In 2017, $3.4 bln was spent by Morocco on its military; however, they have not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000). Although women have suffered some setbacks by a conservative push to keep women's role primarily domestic, Moroccan women's rights activists are continuing to organize around national and international law for peace, justice, and equaltiy.

"We are all aware of the dangers posed to women’s rights, and we must mobilize against this." - Khadija Rouissi

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 3,461,000,000
Military expenditure
Morocco spends USD$3,461,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Science books for kids
This amount could strengthen girls' education by purchasing about 1,350,000,000 science books for school libraries
NAP 1325
Morocco does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Norway

Norway has not been involved in any conflicts in recent history. Norway ranks 2 out of 144 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2017 and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1981. In 2017, $6.5 bln was spent by Norway on its military. The Gender Equality Act in Norway provides equal rights for men and women. In 2014, eight of the nationwide women's rights organizations established the Norwegian Women's Lobby to strengthen the organized feminist movement and continue to work for women's empowerment. In 2017, women held 41 percent of seats in parliament. Whilst Norway excells in political participation, ranking 3rd overall in the World Economic Forums, Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked 80th when it came to women's health, showing that more needs to be done to achieve gender parity in full across all areas. In the 2017 WPS Open Debate, Norway expressed support for the WPS agenda but made no commitments.  

"Women will not become more empowered merely because we want them to be, but through legislative changes, increased information, and redirection of resources. It would be fatal to overlook this issue." - Gro Harlem Brundtland

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 6,568,000,000
Military expenditure
norway spends USD$6,568,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Gender equality in UN peacekeeping
This amount could cover more than half of the UN's entire peacekeeping budget, strengthening support for women peacekeepers, for a year.
NAP 1325
The Norway NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget and there are no other financial resource consideration references within the NAP.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Nigeria

Nigeria has a long-standing history of political, ethnic, and religious conflict that has disproportionately impacted women and girls in the country with high incidences of sexual violence and displacement. Over the last few years, gender-based violence and abductions of women have been escalating under the activities of the group Boko Haram, including the April 2014 abduction of more than 270 girls from a Nigerian school in Chibok. Following the abduction, international security meetings on countering Boko Haram were held in London and Paris but failed to include Nigerian women's civil society organisations. In June 2016, a UN assessment found Nigerian women living in displacement camps in the north-eastern state or Borno face a high risk of abuse and sexual and gender-based violence. Nigeria is ranked 122 out of 144 listed countries on the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Nigeria ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) on 13 June 1985. Nigeria voted for the adoption of the  Arms Trade Treaty, and signed and ratified on 12th August 2013. In 2017, $1.6 bln was spent by Nigeria on its military. Nigeria's NAP on the implementation of UNSCR Resolution 1325 will be financed through domestic and external support through a multi-stakeholder approach and domestic sources and external sources. At the 2017 WPS Open Debate, Nigeria stated that consistent with subregional efforts, Nigeria launched a national action plan to fully implement resolution 1325 (2000), along with plans to combat violent extremism and improve the security sector. It also was collaborating with countries in the region to fight the terrorist group known as Boko Haram, and had taken steps to address the humanitarian needs of the 2 million displaced persons in the north-east of the country, 80 per cent of whom were women. Nigerian women activists continue to advocate for the expansion of women's political and economic empowerment, the prevention of gender-based violence, and the increase of women's paricipation in peace and security responses.

“Though women are now major stakeholders in conflict prevention, peace-making, disarmament and security reforms, as well as post-conflict reconstruction, there is still insufficient opportunity for them to participate in decision making processes that affect their lives.” - Hajia Zainab Maina

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 1,621,000,000
Military expenditure
Nigeria spends USD$1,621,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Sending girls to college
This amount could provide scholarships aimed to provide free college education for around 15 million girls.
NAP 1325
The Nigeria NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget and there are no other financial resource consideration references within the NAP.
WPS commitments
no specific financial commitments.

Country / Region profile of: Montenegro

Women in Montenegro remain underrepresented in leadership positions in government. In addition, violence against women, including domestic violence and sexual harassment, is common. Montenegro is is 77 out of 144 listed countries according to the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Malta has succeeded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2006 and ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on 18 August 2014. In 2017, Montenegro spent $74.3 million on military expenditures. Traditional patriarchal ideas of gender according to which women should be subservient to male members of their families, results in continued discrimination against women in the home. During the 2017 October Open Debate, Montenegro did not give a statement. On February 2017 Montenegro launched its first UNSCR1325 National Action Plan (NAP) for the period 2017-2018. There is no specific budget attached to the NAP. However, for each action, the NAP identifies financial resources. 

“[The aim of my activism is] to fight against injustice and bad customs within my community. My greatest wish is that there were more people fighting against child and forced marriage. And I wish that there were more Roma [...] girls and women who were literate and educated." - Fatima Naza

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 74,300,000
Military expenditure
Montenegro spends USD$74,300,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
National Action Plan
This amount could cover the creation of the country's first National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325... and its funding over at least a three-year period
NAP 1325
Montenegro launched its first UNSCR1325 National Action Plan (NAP) for the period 2017-2018. There is no specific budget attached to the NAP. However, for each action, the NAP identifies financial resources.
WPS commitments
Montenegro made no specific financial commitments on Women, Peace and Security in 2017

Country / Region profile of: Niger

The history of Niger has been characterized by intermittent ethnic conflicts due to the marginalization of its ethnic minorities, the impact of which is felt especially by women. In 2010, a coup d'état took place in Niger that resulted in overthrowing the Government. In 2011, free and fair parliamentary elections were conducted. However, living standards in Niger are among the lowest in the world and women live under particularly harsh conditions, particularly in rural areas. Niger has not been listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) since 2013. Niger voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 24 March 2014, and has ratified on 27 July 2015. In 2017, Niger spent $200 million on military expenditures. It acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) on 8th October 1999.  Niger does not have NAP for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. Although the 2010 Constitution prohibits gender discrimination, women suffer discrimination in practice. Sexual violence is widespread and Niger is both a source and destination country for victims of trafficking. While women have not been included in the peace process of the country so far, women's rights organizations work towards increasing the capacity of women leaders in conflict prevention and management and raising their level of education to nurture a culture of peace. 

“We need strong political leadership to help women, otherwise their rights will never be respected.” - Salamatou Traoré

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 200,000,000
Military expenditure
The country spends USD$200,000,000 on the military
Investing in peace and gender equality
Niger could invest in creation and ongoing funding of a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
NAP 1325
Niger does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Niger has pledged to provide USD$4,441,199.95 a year to carry out its NAP, supporting organizations on the ground that work to protect and politically empower women in conflict situations. It will continue to provide both diplomatic and financial support to Syrian women’s efforts to present their views on their country’s future in international forums.

Country / Region profile of: Mongolia

There are no legal barriers to the participation of women or minorities in government and politics in Mongolia. The increase in female representation was helped by a December 2011 parliamentary election law, which includes a 20 percent quota for women candidates by political parties. Mongolia ranks 53 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) and has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1981. Mongolia signed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in 2013 but did not ratify it. In 2017, $83 mln was spent by Mongolia on its military. Domestic violence remains a serious problem in Mongolia, and there are no laws against sexual harassment. Recognizing these issues, educated women have banded together to form NGOs to criminalize domestic abuse, to improve conditions for women in the labor force, to conduct research on employment, prostitution, and inequalities in wages for women. 

“We were dependent on men. [Now] we are more independent, we can say everything. We can have our own ideas and plans. Before, we were like satellites.” - Luvsan Erdenechimeg

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 83,000,000
Military expenditure
The country spends USD$83,000,000 amount of money on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Investing in peace and gender equality
Mongolia could invest in creation and ongoing funding of a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
NAP 1325
Mongolia does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: El Salvador

Women activists in El Salvador remain underrepresented in the labour force compared to men and are employed at lower rates than men. El Salvador has not been involved in large-scale conflict or war since the brutal civil war during the 1980s. El Salvador ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1981 and is ranked 62 out of 144 listed countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). In terms of disarmament, El Salvador voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 5th June 2013, and ratified on 2nd April 2014. El Salvador released a NAP in 2017 with a cohesive framework for monitoring and evaluating its goals, but without allocated funding for these acitons. In 2017, El Salvador spent $246.8 million on the military. El Salvador participated in the UNSC Open Debate in October 2017, but did not make any relevant statements. Women peace activists continue to work with the community to campaign for greater implementation of laws on gender-based violence and enhancement of women's voices in the security of El Salvador; their efforts have led to historical progress on women's rights, including the passage of the Special Law on Women, which offered wider protections for women, in 2010. 

"We're at a place where we're trying to figure out what else we can do to help women. We look forward to the future and to more of this work [of women's grassroots social movements]." - Cristina Reyes

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 246,800,000
Military expenditure
El Salvador spends USD$ 246,800,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Primary school education
This amount could send about 5,260,000 girls to public primary schools
NAP 1325
El Salvador released a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2017.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Maldives

In Maldivian state-owned companies, there is a target of at least a third of female board members. Most companies have already reached 30 percent, and in our central 80 percent of the managing teams are women. All children are in school. However, religion is commonly seen as a challenge to advance women's rights. The public at large has accepted domestic violence. Women in the Maldives were at the forefront of the protests against the coup resulting in the ousting of President Nasheed in 2012. Nasheed was the democratically elected President who put an end to the thirty-year dictatorship of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom. Maldives ranks 106 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI), and acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993. Maldives voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, but has not yet signed or ratified the document. Maldives did not participate in the October 2017 Open Debate on WPS. At this point of time, we do not have data on the military spending of Maldives in 2017. Women in the Maldives are severely underrepresented in the Government and there is a lack of legislation that target their interests even though Maldives stands relatively higher in development indicators than other countries in the region.

"I pray for a world where its people live and not exist, a world where its people can speak freely and be heard freely; a world and its people who can live in peace with themselves and with others and from which we can die in peace, in the honest belief that we have done our bit to make the world a better place for the citizens of the world of tomorrow." - Mariya Ahmed Didi

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 0
Military expenditure
The country spends an unknown amount of money on the military
Investing in peace and gender equality
The Maldives could invest in creation and ongoing funding of a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
NAP 1325
Maldives does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Monaco

Although fewer women than men are employed outside the home, Monacan women work in a variety of fields and are politically active. Monaco is not listed Global Gender Gap Index for 2017, and it acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2005. Monaco has not signed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Although the law provides for the equality of men and women, there is no institution with a mandate to monitor gender inequalities. No information is available as to Monaco's military spending for 2017.

"I’m basically a feminist. I think that women can do anything they decide to do." - Grace Kelly

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 0
Military expenditure
The country spends an unknown amount of money on the military
Investing in peace and gender equality
Monaco could invest in creation and ongoing funding of a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
NAP 1325
Monaco does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

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