Country / Region profile of: Malaysia

Many of the obstacles facing Malaysia disproportionately affect women. These include endemic poverty, human trafficking, unrest, crime and a resurgent Islamic movement. Malaysia acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1995. It ranks 104 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Malaysia signed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on 25 September 2013 but has not yet ratified.  During the 2017 October Open Debate, Malaysia did not give a statement. In 2017, $3.49 bln was spent by Malaysia on its military; however, they have not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000).  Malaysia has made strides in educational attainment of women, their increased labour force participation in higher paying occupations, their greater involvement in business activities, and their improved health status. Despite these advancements, women remain unequal to men in measures of economic participation, opportunity and political empowerment. 

"I believe in a God that is kind, just and compassionate. So anything done in the name of Islam must be just and compassionate. It is as simple as that. We are doing this because as Muslims, we do not want to have to abandon our faith in order to be a democrat, a feminist, a human rights defender. We believe that equality, fundamental liberties, freedom of religion, gender justice and so on, do not contradict the teachings of Islam." - Zainah Anwar

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 3,495,000,000
Military expenditure
Malaysia spends USD$3,495,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Clean water for schools
This amount could strengthen girls health by building millions of clean drinking water and hand-washing stations in schools
NAP 1325
Malaysia does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Moldova

The Republic of Moldova has committed internationally to open the way for more women to participate in decision-making across sectors. In Moldova, women represent 20.8% in the Parliament and 27.8% in the ministerial positions, which is below international standards and the country’s commitments under nationally and internationally agreed goals. Moldova has not been involved in any recent conflict. Moldova is one of the primary source countries for women subjected to sex trafficking and forced labour. Moldova ranks 30 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) and acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1994. Moldova signed the Arms Trade treaty (ATT) on 10 September 2015 and ratified it on September 28th, 2015. Moldova did not make a statement at the 2017 October Open Debate, and in 2017, the Republic of Moldova spent $29.7 mln on its military. Moldova does not have a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000).  Despite legislation, policies and programs to promote greater participation of women in the overall political processes of the country, women in Moldova continue to be underrepresented in electoral, political and decision-making processes. They experience discrimination in a number of settings, including employment, finance, social security, politics, the justice system, education, healthcare and within the family. Women in Moldova work to attempt to realize their full rights including increased political participation and representation, combating sexual and gender-based violence, while also advocating against trafficking.

 

”I stand for more women in politics. Women make a difference and can contribute to the transparency of decision-making. I strongly believe that we have powerful women in Moldova, smart and responsible, who can take over the leading role in the government." - Liliana Palihovici

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 29,700,000
Military expenditure
Moldova spends USD$29,700,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Conflict prevention
This amount could strengthen gender equitable peacebuilding by approximately covering the UN Peacebuilding fund's 2016 entire budget for conflict prevention and management programmes.
NAP 1325
Moldova does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Moldova made no specific financial commitments on Women, Peace and Security in 2017.

Country / Region profile of: Malawi

Women are a major force in the Malawi's socio-economic activities. Since its transition to democracy in 1994 from Hastings Kumuzu Banda's rule, Malawi has made significant progress in developing laws and programs that promote protection and respect for women’s and girls’ human rights. Despite these efforts there remain significant gender disparities in educational opportunities. Violence against women appears widespread, and Malawi has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world. Malawi acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 12th March 1987 and ranks 101 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). In regards to disarmament, Malawi voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on the 9th of January, 2014, but has not yet ratified. In 2017, $47.2 million was spent by Malawi on its military. Currently, civil society organisations are actively involved in strengthening women's right to inherit property. Also there are some many initiatives designed to give women a voice in policymaking by providing high-quality public opinion data to policy advocates, civil society organisations, academics, news media, donors and investors, and ordinary Africans.

"You cannot be a woman leader without effectively transforming female leadership in all spheres as a gendered category." - Seodi White

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 47,200,000
Military expenditure
Malawi spends USD$47,200,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Private tutoring for school-aged girls
This amount could pay for 38,925,000 hours of private tutoring for disadvantaged girls in Malawi
NAP 1325
Malawi does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Egypt

Egyptian women have long struggled for greater equality under authoritarian regimes on one side and radical extremists on the other. At the nexus of the Arab Spring, women in Egypt were on the frontlines of protests and faced gender-based sexual violence and repression following elections and a military coup. The government of Egypt is using the “NGO Foreign Funding” case to  target Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs) and feminists for their activism and work to defend various rights. The impact of this law has extended to WILPF partners, forcing them to close their offices (due to the lack of funding), while several members were arrested and summoned for investigation. Egypt ranked 134 out of 144 countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index. In 1981, Egypt ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Egypt has not ratified or signed the Arms Trade Treaty. During the 2017 October Security Council Open Debate, Egypt made no specific commitments towards the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the WPS Agenda holistically. In 2016, $2773.7 million was spent by Egypt on its military; however, they have not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000). Egyptian women's rights leaders remain active advocates against female genital mutilation and increasing women's political and economic participation.

"Egypt’s civil society is being treated like an enemy of the state, rather than a partner for reform and progress" -Said Boumedouha

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 2,773,700,000
Military expenditure
Egypt spends USD$ 2,773,700,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Empowering Egyptian women
This amount could buy small business supplies for around 8,000,000 Egyptian women.
NAP 1325
Egypt does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Micronesia

Discrimination and violence against women are among the most prevalent issues in the Federate States of Micronesia, commonly known as Micronesia. There has been no recent conflict in Micronesia. Micronesia has not been listed in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI), and has acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2004. Micronesia voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), but has not yet signed or ratified. During the 2017 October Security Council Open Debate, Micronesia did not make any statements affirming support for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the WPS Agenda holistically. They have not developed a National Action Plan on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000). There is no data on military spending. Cultural factors in the male-dominated society limit women's representation in government and politics.

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 0
Military expenditure
The country spends an unknown amount of money on the military
Investing in peace and gender equality
Micronesia could invest in creation and ongoing funding of a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
NAP 1325
Micronesia does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Madagascar

Although protected constitutionally, women in Madagascar continue to struggle against discriminatory laws and practices and limited political representation. Madagascar experienced a political and economic crisis when the coup in 2009 resulted in suspension from the African Union and the withdrawal of foreign aid. The January 2014 inauguration of a new president has contributed to ending the crisis. Madagascar ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 17th March 1989 and is currently ranked 80th out of 144 in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). In regards to disarmament, Madagascar voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 25th September, but has not yet ratified. In 2017, Madagascar spent $67.3 mln on military expenditures. Madagaskar has not participated in open Debates on Women, Peace and Security; subsequently, it has no 1325 National Action Plan. Poor governance, insecurity and violence in Madagascar has a disproportionate effect on women, as political and economic crises exacerbate discrimination and violence against women.

"If we wait for mentalities to change, women will be excluded from power for a long time yet. We must legislate." - Yvette Sylla

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 67,300,000
Military expenditure
Madagascar spends USD$67,300,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Reproductive health care
This amount could provide sexual health and reproductive rights services for rural women and girls
NAP 1325
Madagascar does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Madagascar in 2015 pledged to remain a strong and reliable partner of UN Women, to which it is one of the top 20 contributors. It said it will maintain its high level of financial contribution in the area of gender mainstreaming in the budgets of United Nations agencies and is pursuing a strategy of taking into account the conditions, priorities and needs of women as part of its official development assistance, which amounts to 1% of our gross national income.

Country / Region profile of: Macedonia

Women in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (also known as Macedonia), especially those belonging to the Roma or Albanian minorities, face challenges to gender equality due to political, economic and social discrimination. Macedonia's dispute with Greece over its name -- as Greece fears that the use of the same name as a Greek region implies territorial ambition -- resulted in Greece's attempt to block Macedonia's NATO bid in 2008. Macedonia succeeded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1994 and is ranked 67 out of 144 listed countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Macedonia ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on 6 March 2014. During the 2017 October Open Debate, Macedonia did not give any statements affirming support for WPS. In 2017, $112 mln were spent by Macedonia on its military; subsequently, the National Action Plan (NAP) on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 (2000) has no specific allocated budget. Women peace activists in FYRO Macedonia continue to advocate for women's rights and peace admidst the ethnic and political turmoil.

"Women have been playing very important roles in building peace in their communities through three important periods: pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict. In each of these periods, the women’s movement exerted strong pressure over relevant institutions and circles in national as well as in international level." - Gjuner Nebiu

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 112,000,000
Military expenditure
Macedonia spends USD$112,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
National Action Plan
This amount could be allocated as a budget for the country's National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325, since the plan currently includes no budget
NAP 1325
The Macedonia NAP does not include an allocated or estimated budget and there are no other financial resource consideration references within the NAP.
WPS commitments
Macedonia made no specific financial commitments on Women, Peace and Security in 2017.

Country / Region profile of: Ecuador

The armed conflict in neighboring country Colombia has had a marked impact on women in Ecuador. With the dangerous security conditions along the border, women, especially refugees, face widespread sexual and gender-based violence and a lack of procedural safeguards. The illegal arms trade in Ecuador has contributed to the Colombian conflict and, to some degree, the gun violence against women. Ecuador ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1981 and is ranked 42 out of 144 listed countries in the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) of 2017. Ecuador abstained from the vote on the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, and has not yet signed or ratified. Nonetheless, their military spending in 2017 was as high as $2427,2 million. The Ecuadorian women's civil society movement has been actively promoting women's rights, and their efforts have successfully led to the creation of an autonomous agency dedicated to women's affairs Consejo Nacional De La Mujer (CONAMU). 

“A definite change is taking place. [Young people] are not afraid of showing themselves as they are, and neither do they say, ‘poor women, such victims!’ because [gender equality] is an issue both men and women have to work on.” - Carolina Félix

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 2,427,200,000
Military expenditure
Ecuador spends USD$ 2,427,200,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Primary school education
This amount could provide free primary school education for 400,000 children including girls from rural and indigenous communities for five years
NAP 1325
Ecuador does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Mexico

Mexico is currently facing high levels of insecurity and widespread violence due to the efforts to put an end to organised crime. Mexico ranks 81 out of 144 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) of 2017 and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1981. In regards to disarmament, Mexico voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 3rd June 2013, and ratified on 25th September 2013. Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women, also known as femicide. The latest disturbing development in femicides includes the spring 2016 murders of pregnant women in Mexico. Nevertheless, comprehensive measures to eradicate gender violence have not been implemented in the country, neither at federal nor at local level. Women continue to strive to make gender equality a reality by advocating for greater women's political participation, combating sexual violence, promoting conditions of safety and security for women and disarmament. Mexico participated in the October 2017 UNSC Open Debate on WPS and committed to continue to expand the participation of female military personnel in the near future. However, they made no financial commitments. On that regard, in 2017 Mexico spent $5.7 bln on the military.

"The gunpowder from the battlefields passed through our hair many times without making us turn back, but our country's Government, when the Revolution was ended and they had taken advantage of our services, sent us back home, saying that 'the woman's place is in her home." — María del Refugio García"

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 5,781,000,000
Military expenditure
Mexico spends USD$5,781,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Rape survivor support services
This amount could support access to justice initiatives for survivors of rape and other violent crimes
NAP 1325
Mexico does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Unknown

Country / Region profile of: Luxembourg

Women in Luxembourg are underrepresented in the parliament and cabinet and face inadequate protection in the legal system as current laws often fail to protect many women from sexual violence and exploitation. Luxembourg has not been involved in large-scale conflict or war recently. Luxembourg ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1989 and is ranked 59 out of 144 listed countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Luxembourg ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on 3 June 2014. In 2017, $318 mln was spent by Luxembourg on its military. In October 2015, the representative of Luxembourg states that the country will remain a strong and reliable partner of UN-Women, to which it is one of the top 20 contributors. In the WPS Open Debate 2017, Luxembourg made no relevant statements. Women activists in Luxembourg continue to advocate for greater implementation of policies to lessen the gender gap and empower women politically and economically. 

"We live in a patriarchal system where the female body is totally controlled and used. Women are ashamed of their bodies, and this is a deep problem. We are slaves of men because we do not control our sexuality." - Alain Margot

YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR!

$ 318,000,000
Military expenditure
Luxembourg spends USD$318,000,000 on the military, including armed forces and peacekeeping forces, defence ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities.
Feeding the hungry
This amount could buy about 1900000 kgs of wheat flour
NAP 1325
Luxembourg does not have a National Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.
WPS commitments
Luxembourg said in 2015 that women’s human rights and empowerment are high priorities in its budget for international cooperation.

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