While discrimination based on gender is legally prohibited, problems such as violence against women, wage discrimination, and unequal access to education persist. To address these issues, the Government adopted a series of legislative reforms, including a 2010 law criminalising gender violence. Cape Verde has not been involved in any large-scale conflict in recent years. Cape Verde acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) on 5th December 1980. Cape Verde sits at number 89 of the 144 countries ranked on the current 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Cape Verde was absent from the vote on the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, but then subsequently adopted the treaty; it signed on 26th September 2013 but has not yet ratified. In 2017, $9.2 million was spent by Cape Verde on its military. Cultural norms and traditions continue to impose gender roles that have hindered the eradication of gender-based discrimination. Cape Verde has not participated in Security Council Open Debates on Women, Peace and Security neither in 2017 nor in 2016. Women generally have lower economic status and less access to management positions in public and private sector organisations. Women and civil society in Cape Verde continue to advocate for equal protection and security under the law.