Women in Ghana have seen many positive developments on gender equality, including an affirmative action policy for women’s representation on government and public boards and public programmes to improve women's access to microcredit. Ghana experienced several violent ethnic conflicts in the 1990s but has largely avoided the major conflicts involving other West African countries. Ghana ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 2nd January 1986 and is ranked 72 out of 144 listed countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Ghana voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 24th September 2013, and ratified on 22 December 2015. In 2017, $189 million was spent by Ghana on its military. Ghana's NAP does not include a specific budget for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. Ghana did not make any statement during the UNSC Open Debates in 2015 or in 2016, 2017. Due to the adverse impacts on women from the civil conflicts and Ghana's discriminatory traditions and customs, Ghana's peace activists continue to advocate for greater implementation of national and international agendas on women's equality and empowerment.