Women's rights organisations in Guyana began with organised protests against colonialism, slavery, and indentureship, and they continue to campaign for peace, justice, and equality today. Guyana has ongoing border disputes with both Venezuela and Suriname over regions that are rich in natural resources. Domestically, persistent ethnic tensions exist between two groups: one, the descendants of Africans who were brought through the sugar plantation slave trade, and the other, the descendants of indentured Indian agricultural workers who were brought after slavery was abolished. Guyana ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1980. Guyana was not ranked in the Global Gender Gap Index in 2017; however, it was ranked 66 out of 142 in 2015. Guyana voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 3rd June 2013, and ratified on 4th July 2013. Guyana participated in the UNSC Open Debate in 2017 but made no relevant statements. Guyana does not have a National Action Plan on WPS. Nonetheless, the military spending for 2017 was of $57.3 million. Although women in Guyana have seen progress in gender equality through the passage of acts addressing gender-based violence, effective implementation of gender equality policies is difficult as the mechanisms for implementation lack capacity and are often dominated by men.