Although protected constitutionally, women in Madagascar continue to struggle against discriminatory laws and practices and limited political representation. Madagascar experienced a political and economic crisis when the coup in 2009 resulted in suspension from the African Union and the withdrawal of foreign aid. The January 2014 inauguration of a new president has contributed to ending the crisis. Madagascar ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 17th March 1989 and is currently ranked 80th out of 144 in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). In regards to disarmament, Madagascar voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed on 25th September, but has not yet ratified. In 2017, Madagascar spent $67.3 mln on military expenditures. Madagaskar has not participated in open Debates on Women, Peace and Security; subsequently, it has no 1325 National Action Plan. Poor governance, insecurity and violence in Madagascar has a disproportionate effect on women, as political and economic crises exacerbate discrimination and violence against women.