Women in the Republic of Korea (also known as South Korea) face challenges from a patriarchal society and social expectations of traditional gender roles, which limit their participation in government and in business and their ability to occupy senior positions. South Korea has not been involved in large-scale conflict or war recently but continues to have high tension with North Korea. Since 2009, repeated missile tests by North Korea have heightened tensions between the two countries. The border between North and South Korea, called the demilitarised zone (DMZ), is the most heavily-fortified border in the world. South Korea ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1984 and is ranked 118 out of 144 listed countries in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). South Korea signed the ATT in 2013, but did not ratify it. In 2017, $39.1 bln was spent by South Korea on its military. The Republic of Korea participated in the 2017 Women, Peace and Security open debate, but did not make any commitments. The Republic of Korea adopted its own national action plan on women and peace and security in 2014, and has been scaling up its efforts to increase women’s participation in peace efforts ever since. Korean women activists continue to advocate for peace between North and South Korea and for greater domestic implementation of gender equality and women's empowerment.