Until 1994, South Africa was ruled by a white minority government and an apartheid regime. Reform in 1994 marked a change in governance for the nation. The Constitution protects women’s right to equality and prohibits discrimination. On paper, South Africa has one of the world's most impressive legal arsenals for protecting women's rights. However, the gap between principle and practice is often wide. In some areas, particularly in politics, it does well. Women played a big part in the liberation struggle and the African National Congress (ANC) has promoted their cause. However, discriminatory practices, social norms and persistent gender stereotypes continue to determine women and men’s opportunities and interactions. South Africa is ranked 17 of 136 countries listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2013 and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1995. Civil society and female activists in South Africa are extremely active in working for peacebuilding and reconcilliation throughout Africa. In addition, they raise awareness regarding violence against women and work tirelessly for social change in their own country.