Turkmenistan does not have a recent history in conflict. Women face many challenges in Turkmenistan. Traditional social and religious norms, inadequate education, and poor economic conditions limit professional opportunities for women. Women additionally face patriarchal traditions, inadequate legislation regarding violence against women and domestic violence, and dismal health conditions. Turkmenistan has not been listed on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) for 2017. There is no military spending data on Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan has acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1996. It has neither signed nor ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Repressive government policies make it extremely difficult for independent non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to operate. Therefore, women's emancipation movements are still very difficult to execute.