Following the Arab Spring, women in Yemen have been a driving force to reform the Constitution and open up new opportunities for Yemeni women socially, politically, and economically. Yemen faces a North-South divide with many radical extremists and government violence that has created a tenuous situation for women socially and politically. Intensified fighting and airstrikes on June 28, 2016 in Yemen have left 80 people dead, a Yemeni military, official said. As of 2017, Yemen ranks last out of 144 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). In 1984, Yemen acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Yemen has neither signed nor ratified the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Yemen is typically referred to as the worst place in the world for women, but many dedicated women's rights advocates within Yemen are challenging those constraints at all levels everyday to change that designation.