Zambian law generally entitles women to have the same amount of equality to men. Nevertheless, it is not adequately enforced and women experience discrimination in employment, equal pay, education, inheritance, and ownership of land and other property. Zambia is not ranked in the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index (GGI). Zambia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) on 21 June 1985. Zambia voted for the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, signed it on 25 September 2013, and ratified it on 23 May 2016. In 2017, $340 million was spent by Zambia on its military.
Zambia does not have a NAP for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. Societal discrimination remains a serious obstacle to women's rights. Women are severely under-represented in politics and are denied full economic participation. Discrimination against women is especially prevalent in customary courts, where they are considered subordinate with respect to property, inheritance, and marriage. This reinforces their status as second class citizens and prohibits them from the full realization of their rights.