Switzerland is taking further steps to implement an international resolution that aims to increase the participation of women in the peace process.
A revised national action plan was discussed at a conference in Bern this week organised by the Swiss foreign ministry. The plan sets out how Switzerland can apply United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, unanimously adopted ten years ago.
It was on October 31, 2000 that for the first time, the international community explicitly recognised the impact of armed conflict on women and the importance of involving them in peace processes.
“To date there are 17 nations that have put together a national strategy with the aim of implementing the objectives outlined in Resolution 1325,” Swiss Ambassador Heidi Tagliavini told the conference.
The former Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Georgia spoke at the meeting where discussions focussed on Switzerland's revised national action plan, which was first released in 2007.
“The aim is to increase the percentage of women in organisations that promote peace,” Tagliavini explained.
“Ten years on, the results are generally positive but at the same time alarming,” Tagliavini said. “Resolution 1325 is without a doubt one of the principle instruments defending the rights of women in war zones, but it's still not enough.
“According to a study by the UN Development Fund for Women (Unifem), there have been 24 important peace processes since 1992 but only 3.2 per cent of the mediators and 5.5 per cent of the observers were women. How is it possible to achieve long lasting and durable peace if half of the population is excluded even before the start [of negotiations].”
The participation of women in peace processes is even more important in a context in which traditional patterns appear to have been altered.
There is a widespread sentiment that to guarantee security in the 21st century, women's involvement could be more important than throwing up a missile shield over Europe.
The fact is that the issue of women suicide bombers in Afghanistan or women rebels in Africa or Latin America cannot be addressed just from a man's perspective.
On the one hand, Resolution 1325 wants to see women sitting at the negotiating table, and on the other promote their direct involvement in the field. At times, a female presence in a conflict zone can be indispensible in overcoming cultural and religious barriers. Women soldiers can more easily inspect - and show respect - for Muslim women at checkpoints, can win the trust of victims of sexual abuse and according to some, have a positive impact on predominantly male troops.
Despite the rhetoric, it is not always easy to assume the role of peacemaker in a predominantly male conflict. Tagliavini has first-hand experience. “For a woman, integrity and credibility are fundamental to survival in patriarchal countries like those in the Caucasus. It's not easy to initiate a dialogue. We have to give men more time to get used to the idea of sitting across the table from a woman…”
Nepalese women have played a particularly active role in the national conflict as either leaders and fighters for the Maoist cause, army members or supporters of the peace movement. Despite their contributions, they have been largely excluded from their country's democratisation process.
The Swiss presence in Nepal is only one example of Swiss government actions taken as part of Resolution 1325. The revisions introduced to the Swiss National Action Plan were done in collaboration with various NGOs.
“For the first time, the plan sets specific objectives for different departments and involved parties,” explained Ursula Keller, responsible for the contributions of the foundation, swisspeace. “In this way, it will be much easier to evaluate results and make the necessary adjustments in 2012.”
The government is also making efforts to strengthen the prevention of sexual abuse and favours sending special observers to high-risk countries.
“I wouldn't go so far as to say that the Swiss strategy will change the lives of women in Afghanistan or Congo,” admitted Keller. “But it's a strong commitment on the part of Switzerland and should be welcomed.”
There is still a lot to do ten years after the adoption of Resolution 1325. One thing though is certain: “Peace building is a task for all humanity,” concluded Decrey-Warner. To achieve this “women must start fighting for everyone and not just other women”.
Stefania Summermatter, swissinfo.ch
(adapted from Italian by Dale Bechtel)