Nine years ago tomorrow, the U.N. Security Council issued Resolution 1325, a turning point for women's rights in international law.
In a watershed moment, the Council said groups in armed conflict were obliged to protect women and girls from violence, and placed women on the peace and security agenda.
The Council also said female peace negotiators needed to be at the table during and after conflict.
Since then, the resolution has been criticized for not explaining which actors were responsible for implementation and how it should be put into motion.
The resolution recognized the toll of war on women and girls, but didn't spell out the repercussions for violators. It did not give the Security Council a chance to use sanctions, its most powerful tool, against countries or individuals. And it left a window open for perpetrators of sexual violence to apply for amnesty.
The worsening of sexual violence in conflict spots has begged the questions left open under the resolution.
In August, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton traveled to the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where she met with survivors of sexual violence.
Drawing on that experience, she introduced Resolution 1888 on Sept. 30 to the U.N. Security Council. The resolution, which passed unanimously, created a special representative--not yet announced--to focus solely on sexual violence in armed conflict.
"A crisis of this dimension affecting any other social group would have attracted a special representative long ago," said Anne Marie Goetz, UNIFEM's chief advisor for Governance, Peace, and Security, in a recent phone interview. "There are special representatives for swine flu, avian flu and the food crisis. It's long overdue that there is a special leader appointed to address this emergency."
New Criteria for Sanctions
Resolution 1888 enables the Security Council's sanctions committee to take into account rape and sexual violence as criteria when considering sanctions against nations and individuals. Before, these acts were not included. It also establishes a report that names and shames perpetrators who commit acts of sexual violence for the Security Council to review.
"The sanctions committee is the strongest accountability action tool that the Security Council has," said Goetz. "It could be the freezing of the bank accounts of perpetrators or broader sanctions targeted at a national economy."
The special representative will become the head of U.N. Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, a 12-agency coalition that includes UNIFEM and the department of Peacekeeping Operations. The envoy will be able to tap into the large resources of these agencies.
Unfortunately, the special envoy is not yet in place to address problems in Guinea, where security forces in September killed dozens of peaceful activists, raped and sexually assaulted female demonstrators and wounded thousands, according to eyewitnesses interviewed by Human Rights Watch. At least 150 people were killed.
"The secretary-general doesn't have a reputation as being very fast in his appointments," said Marianne Mollman, director of advocacy for Human Rights Watch's Women's Rights Division, in a phone interview. "In the case of Guinea, the main issue is impunity. A special envoy could help make sure that there is no impunity; that the perpetrators would be brought to justice."
Guinean Women Gather Evidence
On Oct. 8, Guinean women gathered to collect information about the public rapes, in an effort by civil organizations to protect survivors and bring the perpetrators to justice, according to reporting by the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs.
Aid agencies documented 33 public rape cases, but advocates fear many more female victims are afraid to come forward.
Rumors have even spread, according to the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs, that soldiers are entering hospitals and taking away women who said they have been raped.
"The soldiers were safe in the knowledge that nothing would happen to them," Deejah Diallo, a 27-year-old woman living in Conakry, Guinea's capital, said in a recent phone interview. "About the sexual violence, I think that's the supreme humiliation. Men have always done that…it's a pattern, see what's going on in the Democratic Republic of Congo, for instance."
In response to the state-sponsored violence, former colonial power France has suspended military aid and a West African regional bloc has imposed an arms embargo against Guinea.
At a recent summit in Abuja, Nigeria, the Economic Community of West Africa States said the country, which borders Sierra Leone and Liberia, is a threat to the region's security and stability. The United States has asked the president of Guinea, Captain Moussa Dadis Camara, to leave office.
"We have made it clear… that the current junta led by Captain Dadis Camara should step down," said Phillip J. Crowley, assistant secretary of the Bureau of Public Affairs, at an Oct. 14 U.S. State Department press briefing. "We also think that there should be an international investigation of the events that resulted in the death of over 150 people."
The U.N. launched an international community of inquiry on Oct. 16. U.N. Secretary-General spokesperson Michele Montas said they would send a mission to Conakry shortly to investigate the recent killings and rapes.
Violence Criminal, Not Cultural
"Violence against women is not cultural, it's criminal," Margaret Wallström, vice-president of the European Commission, said in a talk at Columbia University on Oct. 15. "How do you build peace where this happened, if you've seen your mother or daughter raped?"
The Security Council on Oct. 5 also fortified the nine-year-old spirit of Resolution 1325 by passing Resolution 1889.|
It mandates that the Security Council develop a strategy to increase the number of female peacekeepers and that gender advisors are placed to manage humanitarian assistance and participate in post-conflict resolution.
The resolution also calls for greater inclusion of women in negotiating teams. According to UNIFEM, women account for only 7 percent of negotiators in peace talks.
On Sept. 14, the General Assembly created a single new entity within the U.N. to promote women's rights. Within this entity, important offices, agencies and funds within the U.N. that focus on women will be merged into a larger institution.
Since 2000, the status of women in conflict has seen some victories, but has largely deteriorated.
Women are still largely on the margins of peace talks and negotiations, said Inés Alberdi, executive director of UNIFEM. She said the U.N. has not once appointed a woman to mediate a major conflict and that sexual violence as a tactic of war is on the rise.
More than 200,000 women in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo have been raped in the past decade, as many as 40 a day, according to a report from the U.N. Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict.
The Security Council passed a resolution in June 2008 that recognized sexual violence as a threat to international peace and security. But like Resolution 1325, it lacked any implementation specifics, a criticism that U.N. votes and measures in the past month may help to overcome.