The issue of women and children affected by armed conflict is one of the priorities of the 18- month troika programme of the three EU Presidencies of Germany, Portugal and Slovenia. A first study on Children Affected by Armed Conflict (CAAC) was completed in January 2008. This second study on Women and Armed Conflict (WAC) was jointly commissioned by Slovenia, Austria and Germany. Though the study concentrates on women rather than on gender and armed conflict, it recognises the importance of gender analysis as a tool to promote a better response to women and armed conflict. Since women are both affected by and can affect armed conflict, "affected by" was removed from the initial title. This report focuses on the EU's response to WAC, in particular on the development cooperation dimension. The report describes international approaches and legal obligations to WAC, identifies and discusses the most salient issues, gives an overview and assessment of the EU response and provides findings and recommendations. Examples or cases from Sierrra Leone, Uganda, the DRC, Kosovo and Burundi are included as well as thematic cases on sexual and gender based violence, local advocates for accountability on WAC, national action plans associated with WAC and regional approaches to WAC.