In recent years, much attention has been devoted by international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academics and certain governments to the plight, needs and rights of women affected by armed conflict. For example, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) published Women Facing War (2001), a study on the impact of armed conflict on women; the United Nations Security Council adopted Security Council Resolution 1325 on “Women, Peace and Security” (2000) which resulted in the production of a number of studies on this theme, by the Division for the Advancement of Women (2002) and UNIFEM (2002). Such studies have done much to raise awareness of the way women are affected by armed conflict and how States and organizations have responded to their plight. Recommendations as to how to ensure the most appropriate responses to the needs of women have also ensued. However, for such work to be truly effective, it needs to be adapted for those who operate in situations of armed conflict. The aim of this Guidance Document is to provide a working tool to ensure the provision of appropriate programmes and services to, and with, women affected by armed conflict.