The Security Council resolution 2078 (S/RES/2078)was unanimously adopted on 28 November 2013 (S/PV.6873)extending the sanctions regime and measures imposed on arms and transport as well as the financial measures, per SCR 1807 (2008), in addition to the mandate of the Group of Experts (GoE) until 1 February 2014. The resolution also enumerates the individuals and entities for which the measures shall apply. Women, peace and security issues are addressed in five areas of the Resolution: three preambular references and two operative references. The first preambular reference is a generic paragraph recalling women, peace and security resolutions along with those on children and armed conflict and the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, whilst the second and third address serious human rights abuses, including sexual and gender-based violence and call for perpetrators to be held accountable. Both operative references also deal with sexual and gender-based violence, the first identifying perpetrators of serious violations involving the targeting of children or women in situations of armed conflict as individuals and entities for whom the measures are applicable (OP 4e).
The second reference strongly condemns the M23 and all its attacks, including the use of sexual and gender-based violence (OP 6). A particular missed opportunity in the Resolution, as laid out in the NGOWG MAP recommendation, includes ensuring that MONUSCO is sharing all relevant information the GoE, especially with regards to violations of women’s human rights as well as highlighting the link between the illicit flow of small arms and light weapons and the occurrence of sexual and gender-based violence.Without addressing the specifics of the resolution or making reference to women, peace and security concerns, Rwanda discusses the situation in DRC and efforts on the part of national leaders to counter the threat of the M23.