Security Council resolution 2127 (2013) was unanimously adopted by the Council on 5 December 2013 (S/PV.7072) authorizing the deployment of MISCA.
Against a backdrop of a continually and rapidly deteriorating humanitarian situation, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2127 authorizing the deployment of MISCA and French troops already stationed to support MISCA in the implementation of its mandate. The resolution authorized the deployment for an initial period of one year, centering on the protection of civilians, the restoration of state authority, and the creation of conditions conducive to the provision of humanitarian assistance. The document also addressed the sale and transfer of arms and related material and condemning human rights violations in the country, the Council requested the Secretary-General establish an international commission of enquiry to investigate reported human rights abuses since 1 January 2013. Additionally, the text established a trust fund for MISCA and requested the Secretary-General make contingency preparations for the possible transformation of the Mission into a UN Peacekeeping operation and make possible recommendations on a transformation within three months.
Women, peace and security references were made on five occasions in the resolution, including three preambular references and two operative references. Whilst references were made to both protection concerns as well as women’s political participation, the operative clauses exclusively addressed sexual violence, whilst language on participation was confined to the preambular paragraphs. The first preambular reference expressed serious concern regarding increasingly violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, including sexual violence. The second was a relatively standard paragraph recalling women, peace and security resolutions as well as other thematic resolutions on the protection of civilians and children and armed conflict, and called on parties in CAR to engage with the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict as well as the SRSG on Sexual Violence in Conflict. The third preambular reference stressed the importance of women’s full and equal participation in conflict resolution and electoral processes.
Both operative references addressed sexual violence. The first called on all parties to armed conflict in the country to issues clear orders against sexual violence as well as calling for accountability and immediate access to available services for survivors (OP.23). OP.56 also referred to sexual violence as an action that threatens or impedes the political process or fuel violence, within the context of the Council’s intent to impose targeted measures against individuals acting to undermine peace, stability and security (OP.56).
These references notwithstanding, it was unfortunate that the resolution missed the opportunity to concretely address gender issues within the resolution. Specifically, it is unfortunate that the resolution did not stress the importance of women’s participation in operative clauses of the text. Additionally, the resolution did not adopt a gender perspective with regards to disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR); rule of law; MISCA troop training; or regarding international support and the mobilization of resources, including with respect to troop contributions and funding.
The December 2013 MAP recommendations called on the Council to, inter alia, support the deployment of Gender Advisers, Women’s Protection Advisers and Child Protection Advisers within the mission. Beyond this, the resolution reflected the MAP recommendations to various degrees of specificity and substance.
The previous resolution on CAR, adopted 10 October 2013 (SCR 2121), renewed and reinforced the mandate of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in CAR (BINUCA). While the Mission focus of the resolution differed significantly, with respect to women, peace and security, there were no significant changes in the language used in the texts. Operative language regarding the imposition of targeted measures against perpetrators of sexual violence, as well as with respect to survivors’ access to services, represented good practice and should be replicated.
The Security Council’s 7072th meeting on 5 December 2013 (S/PV.7072) focused on the adoption of resolution 2127 (2013) on the Central African Republic.
The Security Council met on 5 December to discuss the situation in CAR as well as the recent report of the Secretary-General on the Central African Republic submitted pursuant to paragraph 22 of Security Council resolution 2121 (2013) (S/2013/677), and to adopt resolution 2127 (2013). Following the unanimous adoption of the resolution, the Council heard statements from Togo, Morocco, Central African Republic, and the African Union. Key issues discussed in the meeting included the deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in CAR; the importance of the adoption of SCR 2127 for peace and security in CAR and the region; as well as resource mobilization for the African Union-led Mission.
No references to women, peace and security were made in the meeting. Two references were made to ‘men, women and children’ as civilians during the course of the meeting, which does not constitute a women, peace and security reference for the purposes of this analysis.
There were a number of missed opportunities to raise women, peace and security concerns in the meeting. These included with regards to the security and humanitarian situations, as well as the subsequent authorization of the comprehensive approach to the crisis embodied in the African Union-led International Mission in the Central African Republic and its mandate. Given the importance of resource mobilization, it was especially unfortunate that no reference was made to mandated women, peace and security obligations with regards to the financial and resource mobilization, including forthcoming donor conferences. Furthermore, in line with women, peace and security obligations, gender should have been mainstreamed throughout MISCA’s work.
The December 2013 MAP recommendations called on the Council to, inter alia, support the deployment of Gender Advisers, women’s protection advisers and Child Protection Advisers within the Mission. These points were not reflected in the meeting. The MAP further called for women’s protection as well as efforts to ensure their participation in peace processes, neither of which was addressed in the meeting. This was unfortunate in light of obligations embedded in resolution 2127 (2013), particularly with regards to sexual violence in conflict (OP. 23;56).
The previous Security Council meeting on CAR was held on 25 November 2013 (S/PV.7069), to adopt resolution 2121 (2013), and one reference to women, peace and security concerns was made during the course of the discussion by the Deputy Secretary-General. Whilst this does not reflect the wider rubric of women, peace and security language in resolution 2121 (2013), this was one reference more than in this meeting (S/PV.7072).